Revtex Footnote In Bibliography

REVTeX 4 - Frequently Asked Questions

REVTeX 4 Home

The current version is REVTeX 4.1 (patch level 2), released on August 11, 2010.

Downloading REVTeX 4

Installing REVTeX 4

Using REVTeX 4

Page Length


March 15, 2010: A new release of REVTeX 4.1 has been made public. The following bugs were addressed:

  • Using the same \affiliation more than once results in some authors not getting any affiliation at all.
  • reftest was left out of the distribution
  • For RMP, the \cite command doesn't enclose the citation in parentheses properly.
  • For RMP, the .bst files don't properly handle several cases including a book with editors, but no authors

In addition, there were many other improvements including the handling of footnotes, compatibility with packages such as lscape and hyperref, and punctuation in bibliographies. Also, the "long" version of the BibTeX style files have been removed from the distribution. The remaining style files have been enhanced to provide the same functionality when the longbibliography class option is used.



Changes from REVTeX 4

Downloading REVTeX 4.1

Where do I download REVTeX 4.1?

The current release of REVTeX 4.1 may be download directly from this site as a zipfile: In addition, it may be found on CTAN in the latex/contrib/revtex directory.

Where do I get a TeX installation?

  • TeX Live is available for many platforms from the TeX Live home page. It is updated annually and it is a rather comprehensive distribution. REVTeX 4.1 has been part of TeX Live starting with its 2010 distribution.
  • MacTeX for Mac users is made available via the MacTeX package on the TUG site.
  • MiKTeX is also a free Windows TeX installation. You might be interested in downloading the up-to-date MiKTeX installer. Choose either the basic system or the complete MiKTeX system.
  • Scientific Word is another option for using LaTeX on Windows. It is available from Mackichan Software.
  • PCTeX is still another option for Windows available from their website.

Is REVTeX 4.0 still available?

REVTeX 4.0 may still be needed for legacy documents. Most REVTeX 4 documents should run under REVTeX 4.1 as well. Many TeX distributions remove older packages, so you may need to install REVTeX 4 yourself. It can be downloaded as the zip file REVTeX 4 and REVTeX 4.1 can be installed side-by-side on the same computer without interfering each other. New documents should be created using REVTeX 4.1, especially if you are planning on submitting to an APS journal.

Installing REVTeX 4

I have a TeX installation. How do I install REVTeX 4.1?

Many up-to-date TeX installations already include REVTeX 4.1. Installation for TeX Live and MikTeX is fairly straightforward because both use the standard TeX Directory Structure (TDS) layout for their files. See the README file included in the REVTeX 4.1 distribution for basic instructions. REVTeX 4.1 comes as a zip file using the same TDS layout. Usually one only need unzip the file in the proper place and run a program to update where TeX looks for files. See the README and the documentation for your TeX distribution on which program to run.

For other TeX distributions, please consult that distribution's documentation.

REVTeX 4 and 4.1 can be installed side-by-side on the same computer. The files in 4.1 are all versioned.

Using REVTeX 4.1

Are there any templates to help with producing my paper?

REVTeX 4.1 comes with template files called apstemplate.tex for APS journals and aiptemplate.tex for AIP journals. They are located in the doc/latex/revtex/sample directory.

How do I achieve a one-column, double-spaced, 12 pt document?

Using \documentclass[preprint,...]{revtex4-1} gives 12 pt., one-column, double-spaced look used for the review/production process.

How do I make my paper look like the journal?

Using \documentclass[reprint,...]{revtex4-1} gives the look and feel of the journal (whether the journal is set in one or two columns). You may use the twocolumn class option to force a two-column layout.

How do I format a one-page comment or erratum?

Just format it as a regular article. REVTeX doesn't support comments or errata directly. It will be formatted in the production stage of the processing of the manuscript.

How do I change the numbering of pages?

The standard LaTeX 2e method should work: \setcounter[page]{321}. Any standard LaTeX2e manual should be able to help you with this.

How do I remove all page numbers?

You should be able to use the standard LaTeX 2e \pagestyle{empty}. Please consult any LaTeX 2e manual.

How do I choose the square bracket or superscript style for citations?

The citation style is set by the journal option you choose. For APS journals, only the prb option gives superscript-style citations.

Why is the compiler rejecting the \Bbb command and recommending the \mathbb command?

Be sure you are using the amssymb math package by specifing the amssymb class option:

How do I format long equations in a preprint format?

If you want them typeset with a certain set of line breaks, you should force the line breaks in your preprint style submission. Our typesetter is the final arbiter of how the math is set, so it may be changed in production. You may include a note in your cover letter indicating why you prefer to have the equations typeset with the line breaks. You will also be given the opportunity to comment on the formatting at the author proofs stage.

Why is there no top margin when I print?

The bounding box is cutting off the top of the page. Be sure that your dvips is configured to use letter size and not A4 size paper. If you are running Unix, try using the texconfig command to check and fix the default size.

Can I use REVTeX 4.1 to prepare a contribution to an AIP journal?

Yes, REVTeX 4.1 introduced full support for all AIP journals. Please consult Author's Guide to AIP Substyles for REVTeX 4.1. Questions regarding AIP journals should be sent to

How do I add line numbers to my document?

Use the linenumbers class option: \documentclass[...,linenumbers,...]{revtex4-1}. This will call in lineno.sty (and patch it to work with REVTeX 4.1).

Page Length

Can I use REVTeX 4.1 to estimate the length of my submission?

Although using the reprint option in REVTeX 4.1 typesets the text area and font sizes appropriately for each journal, the formatting in REVTeX 4.1 is not exact enough for determining the final length of an article once it goes through journal production (which involves converting the article to XML). Different fonts and figure scalings are the largest sources of error. Use of Times-Roman fonts can partially mitigate the problem. Length estimates at APS are calculated as described in our Length Guide. For AIP length requirements, please consult their web site.


Why does \tag not work with hyperref?

This isn't really a REVTeX 4.1 bug. There is an incompatibility between AMSTeX's \tag command and hyperref. We don't know of a workaround.


Is there any link to the BibTeX Guide mentioned in the REVTeX 4 documentation?

This was an error in the REVTeX 4 documentation and has been addressed in REVTeX 4.1. At this point in time, there is no separate BibTeX guide. A good LaTeX book will contain an intro to BibTeX and help you through the process. We can answer specific questions if you have them.

How do I put multiple references in the same bibliography entry?

Combining multiple references into a single bibliography entry when using BibTeX was one of the most common problems authors run into. During the development of REVTeX 4.1, we worked with Patrick Daly to add enhancements to his natbib package to make this straightforward. To combine two references together, prepend an * to the argument of the \cite command. For instance, if you want the bibitems with keys feynman and bohr combined into a single entry, use \cite{feynman,*bohr}. The references will be separated by a semicolon in a single entry.

How can I add additional text to a bibliography entry?

Another feature of natbib and REVTeX 4.1 is to allow the prepending or appending of text to an entry in the bibliography. This is done via \cite{*[{prepended text}][{appended text}]key}. Note the use of the curly braces within the square bracket to avoid problems with the processing of the text. See the REVTeX 4.1 documentation for more information.

Where can I download the natbib.sty files?

The natbib.sty files are available at CTAN in the macros latex/contrib/natbib directory.

Is it necessary to have the same citation order in a .bib file?

The order in the BibTeX entries in the .bib file is irrelevant. Only the order of the \cite commands matters.

How can I make the titles of cited journal articles appear in the bibliography?

REVTeX 4.1 calls in a default BibTeX Style (.bst) file for each supported journal. The .bst files support displaying the titles of cited journal articles in the bibliography. To display the titles, simply use the "longbibliography" class option. Consult the REVTeX 4.1 documentation for more information.

How do I include an accent in an author's name?

Try surrounding the entire name in an additional set of braces. Or, try isolating the accented letter as {\"u}.

How do I keep footnotes in order of appearance within the text instead of having them appear at the end of the bibliography?

REVTeX 4.1 uses the footnote style appropriate for the chosen journal. You can override the journal default by using the 'footinbib' or 'nofootinbib' options (see the command summary documentation included with REVTeX 4.1).

I received warning messages about missing references when I ran LaTeX on my file.

While in the directory containing the TeX files, run the following:

  • latex file.tex
  • bibtex file (creates the .bbl file)
  • latex file.tex (runs latex on the .tex and .bbl files together)
  • latex file.tex (second run of latex corrects the citations)

BibTeX will have created a .bbl file. When submitting to APS or AIP journals, we ask that you include the final .bbl directly into the main .tex file.

How do I get a truncated reference, e.g., "Ann Author et al." when there are 5 or more authors?

The BibTeX style files distributed with REVTeX 4.1 no longer truncate the author lists of references (REVTeX 4's .bst files would truncate the list if there were more than 10 authors). APS editors prefer full author lists be used for references with 15 or less authors. For longer lists, use the phrase "and others" in place of the authors you want to omit.

I received a fatal error: Warning--I didn't find a database entry for "endnote 1" ... you've exceeded BibTeX's wizard-defined function space 3000.

The REVTeX 4.1 BibTeX style files are fairly demanding but most up-to-date TeX installations come with a big enough space for BibTeX. Your TeX distrubtion's BibTeX may have have a command line flag or configuration parameter to increase this space.


How do I include PostScript figures?

Assuming you are using REVTeX 4.1:

\usepackage{graphics} (or graphicx)
\caption{\label{foo} ....}

Please see the "Documentation" section of the REVTeX 4 Home Page or any good book on LaTeX2e.

How do I generate a page that shows a list of figures with their captions?

Use the endfloats option and leave out the \includegraphics - this will list all of the figures at the end of the paper. APS no longer requires this so we don't support it particularly well. It is not needed for production or editorial purposes. It is better to have the figures in the text for the referees to see.

Can I place a caption in the second column next to a long, full-column-wide figure?

No, unfortunately the REVTeX 4.1 layout isn't that sophisticated.

When there are two figures on the same page, the second one doesn't seem to appear.

Please check your log file. You should be receiving error messages; i.e., could not place figure, or something similar. It should not just be ignoring the figure. You can try the floatfix option and see if that helps.

Is there a way to convert .jpg (.jpeg) files to .ps or .eps?

You can convert it to a similarly sized EPS file via a program called 'jpeg2ps.' The jpeg2ps program puts a simple PostScript Level II wrapper around the JPEG. The size shouldn't change at all. (You might try making sure that exporting Level II EPS.)

How do I get the LaTeX compiler to recognize the command \includegraphics?

You need to either use \usepackage{graphics} or \usepackage{graphicx}
Somewhere in your TeX distribution is a file called or grfguide.dvi. You may want to read it to learn how to resize and reposition your graphics. Alternatively, search at CTAN for "grfguide" to locate a copy of the guide.

Changes from REVTeX 4

What changes were made with upgrading from REVTeX 4 to REVTeX 4.1?

A complete list of specific differences between REVTeX 4 and REVTeX 4.1 is given in the REVTeX documentation included in the REVTeX 4.1 distribution. The file is whatsnew4-1.pdf in the doc/latex/revtex/auguide directory.

Help with REVTeX 4.1

How can I get more help with REVTeX 4.1?

For additional assistance concerning REVTeX 4.1 or using it for APS journals, please contact For issues related to AIP journals, please contact

Sample ReVTeX file

The name of this file is introrev.tex. \documentclass[prb,11pt]{revtex4-1} % preamble: \usepackage{amsmath} % need for subequations \usepackage{graphicx} % need for figures \usepackage{verbatim} % useful for program listings \usepackage{color} % use if color is used in text \usepackage{subfigure} % use for side-by-side figures \usepackage{hyperref} % use for hypertext links, including those to external documents and URLs \raggedbottom % don't add extra vertical space \begin{comment} \pagestyle{empty} % use if page numbers not wanted \end{comment} \begin{document} \title{Introduction to \LaTeX} \author{Harvey Gould} \affiliation{Clark University, Department of Physics, Worcester, MA 01610} \affiliation{Boston University, Department of Physics, Boston, MA 02215} \date{16 June 2013} \begin{abstract} We give a brief introduction to the use of \LaTeX\ in the context of REVTeX~4.1. \end{abstract} \maketitle \section{Introduction} \LaTeX\ looks more difficult than it is. It is almost as easy as $\pi$. See how easy it is to make special symbols such as $\alpha$, $\beta$, $\gamma$, $\delta$, $\sin x$, $\hbar$, $\lambda$, $\ldots$\ . We also can make subscripts, $A_{x}$, $A_{xy}$, and superscripts, $e^x$, $e^{x^2}$, and $e^{a^b}$. We will use \LaTeX, which is based on \TeX\ and has many higher-level commands (macros) for formatting, making tables, etc. More information can be found in Refs.~\onlinecite{latex, website}. We just made a new paragraph. Extra lines and spaces make no difference. Note that all formulas are enclosed by \$ and occur in \textit{math mode}. The default font is Computer Modern. It includes \textit{italics}, \textbf{boldface}, \textsl{slanted}, and \texttt{monospaced} fonts. \section{Equations} Let us see how easy it is to write equations. \begin{equation} \Delta =\sum_{i=1}^N w_i (x_i - \bar{x})^2. \end{equation} It is a good idea to number equations, but we can have a equation without a number: \begin{equation} P(x) = \frac{x - a}{b - a}, \nonumber \end{equation} and \begin{equation} g = \frac{1}{2} \sqrt{2\pi}. \nonumber \end{equation} We can give an equation a label so that we can refer to it later. \begin{equation} \label{eq:ising} E = -J \sum_{i=1}^N s_i s_{i+1}, \end{equation} Equation~\eqref{eq:ising} expresses the energy of a configuration of spins in the Ising model.\footnote{REVTeX~4.1 places the footnotes in the bibliography. It is necessary to run BibTEX for footnotes to appear.} We can define our own macros to save typing. For example, suppose that we introduce the macros: \begin{verbatim} \newcommand{\lb}{{\langle}} \newcommand{\rb}{{\rangle}} \end{verbatim} \newcommand{\lb}{{\langle}} \newcommand{\rb}{{\rangle}} Then we can write the average value of $x$ as \begin{verbatim} \begin{equation} \lb x \rb = 3 \end{equation} \end{verbatim} The result is \begin{equation} \lb x \rb = 3. \end{equation} Examples of more complicated equations: \begin{equation} I = \! \int_{-\infty}^\infty f(x)\,dx \label{eq:fine}. \end{equation} We can do some fine tuning by adding small amounts of horizontal spacing: \begin{verbatim} \, small space \! negative space \end{verbatim} as is done in Eq.~\eqref{eq:fine}. We also can align several equations: \begin{align} a & = b \\ c &= d, \end{align} or number them as subequations: \begin{subequations} \begin{align} a & = b \\ c &= d. \end{align} \end{subequations} We can also have different cases: \begin{equation} \label{eq:mdiv} m(T) = \begin{cases} 0 & \text{($T > T_c$)} \\ \big(1 - [\sinh 2 \beta J]^{-4} \big)^{\! 1/8} & \text{($T < T_c$)}, \end{cases} \end{equation} write matrices \begin{align} \textbf{T} &= \begin{pmatrix} T_{++} \hfill & T_{+-} \\ T_{-+} & T_{--} \hfill \end{pmatrix}, \nonumber \\ & = \begin{pmatrix} e^{\beta (J + B)} \hfill & e^{-\beta J} \hfill \\ e^{-\beta J} \hfill & e^{\beta (J - B)} \hfill \end{pmatrix}. \end{align} and \newcommand{\rv}{\textbf{r}} \begin{equation} \sum_i \vec A \cdot \vec B = -P\!\int\! \rv \cdot \hat{\mathbf{n}}\, dA = P\!\int \! {\vec \nabla} \cdot \rv\, dV. \end{equation} \section{Tables} Tables are a little more difficult. TeX automatically calculates the width of the columns. \begin{table}[h] \centering \begin{tabular}{|l|l|r|l|} \hline lattice & $d$ & $q$ & $T_{\rm mf}/T_c$ \\ \hline square & 2 & 4 & 1.763 \\ \hline triangular & 2 & 6 & 1.648 \\ \hline simple cubic & 3 & 6 & 1.330 \\ \hline bcc & 3 & 8 & 1.260 \\ \hline fcc & 3 & 12 & 1.225 \\ \hline \end{tabular} \caption{\label{tab:5/tc}Comparison of mean-field predictions for the critical temperature of the Ising model with exact results and the best known estimates for different dimensions and lattice symmetries.} \end{table} \section{Lists} Some example of formatted lists include the following: \begin{enumerate} \item bread \item cheese \end{enumerate} \begin{itemize} \setlength{\itemsep}{-5pt} % made items closer together \item Tom \item Dick \end{itemize} \section{Figures} We can make figures bigger or smaller by scaling them. Figure~\ref{fig:sine} has been scaled by 60\%. \begin{figure}[h!] \centering \includegraphics[scale=0.6]{sine} \caption{\label{fig:sine}Show me a sine.} \end{figure} \section{Literal text} It is desirable to print program code as it is typed in a monospaced font. Use \verb+\begin{verbatim}+ and \verb+\end{verbatim}+ as in the following example: \begin{verbatim} double y0 = 10; // example of declaration and assignment statement double v0 = 0; // initial velocity double t = 0; // time double dt = 0.01; // time step double y = y0; \end{verbatim} The command \verb+\verbatiminput{programs/}+ allows you to list the file \texttt{} in the directory programs. \section{Special Symbols} \subsection{Common Greek letters} These commands may be used only in math mode. Only the most common letters are included here. $\alpha, \beta, \gamma, \Gamma, \delta,\Delta, \epsilon, \zeta, \eta, \theta, \Theta, \kappa, \lambda, \Lambda, \mu, \nu, \xi, \Xi, \pi, \Pi, \rho, \sigma, \tau, \phi, \Phi, \chi, \psi, \Psi, \omega, \Omega$ \subsection{Special symbols} The derivative is defined as \begin{equation} \frac{dy}{dx} = \lim_{\Delta x \to 0} \frac{\Delta y} {\Delta x} \end{equation} \begin{equation} f(x) \to y \quad \mbox{as} \quad x \to x_{0} \end{equation} \begin{equation} f(x) \mathop {\longrightarrow} \limits_{x \to x_0} y \end{equation} \noindent Order of magnitude: \begin{equation} \log_{10}f \simeq n \end{equation} \begin{equation} f(x)\sim 10^{n} \end{equation} Approximate equality: \begin{equation} f(x)\simeq g(x) \end{equation} \LaTeX\ is simple if we keep everything in proportion: \begin{equation} f(x) \propto x^3. \end{equation} Finally we can skip some space by using commands such as \begin{verbatim} \bigskip \medskip \smallskip \vspace{1pc} \end{verbatim} The space can be negative. \section{Use of Color} {\color{blue}{We can change colors for emphasis}}, {\color{green}{but}} {\color{cyan}{who is going pay for the ink?}} \section{\label{morefig}Subfigures} As soon as many users start becoming comfortable using \LaTeX, they want to use some of its advanced features. So we will show you how to place two figures side by side. \begin{figure}[h!] \centering \subfigure[\ Real and imaginary.]{ \includegraphics[scale=0.5]{reim}} \subfigure[\ Amplitude and phase.]{ \includegraphics[scale=0.5]{phase}} \caption{\label{fig:qm/complexfunctions} Two representations of complex wave functions.} \end{figure} We first have to include the package, \verb+\usepackage{subfigure}+, which has to go in the preamble (before \verb+\begin{document}+). It sometimes can be difficult to place a figure in the desired place. Your LaTeX document can be easily modified to make a poster or a screen presentation similar to (and better than) PowerPoint. Conversion to HTML is straightforward. \begin{thebibliography}{5} \bibitem{latex}Helmut Kopka and Patrick W. Daly, \textsl{A Guide to \LaTeX: Document Preparation for Beginners and Advanced Users} (Addison-Wesley, 2004), 4th ed. \bibitem{website}Some useful links are given at \url{}. \end{thebibliography} \end{document}

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