General Miguel Malvar Essay Writing Contest Winners

1. Malvar, Batangas – Malvar, officially the Municipality of Malvar, is a municipality in the province of Batangas in the Calabarzon of the Philippines. The population was 56,270 at the 2015 census, in the 2016 electoral roll, it had 29,589 registered voters. The municipality was named after General Miguel Malvar, the last Filipino general to surrender to the United States in the Philippines in 1902. Located 68 kilometres south of Manila and accessible by the STAR Tollway, Malvar is surrounded by Tanauan City to the north, Santo Tomas to the east, Lipa City to the south, with the expansion of Metro Manila, Malvar is now part of the Manila conurbation. Malvar is located at 14°02′30″N 121°09′30″E, according to the Philippine Statistics Authority, the municipality has a land area of 33.00 square kilometres   constituting 1. 06% of the 3,119. 75-square-kilometre- total area of Batangas. Malvar is politically subdivided into 15 barangays, in the 2015 census, Malvar had a population of 56,270. The population density was 1,700 inhabitants per square kilometre, in the 2016 electoral roll, it had 29,589 registered voters. The elected officials for the 2017-2019 term are, Mayor, Cristeta C, Reyes Vice Mayor, Alberto Lat Councilors, Apart from the primary Rural Health Unit under DOH-Batangas, Mayor Carlito Reyes founded the Malvar Maternity Clinic a month after taking office. The clinic accepts emergency deliveries, and is open 24 hours daily for obstetric, the clinic has doctors on duty from 7 am to 11 pm weekdays and around the clock on weekends. RHU personnel serve during the day, nurses are on duty 24 hours daily, and a midwife is on duty weeknights. An ambulance is available for patient transfers, and all services are free of charge, calejon Falls, in Barangay San Gregorio, consists of two large waterfalls and two smaller ones. One of the falls is about 10 feet high, with clear water falling into a shallow pool. One of the falls is shower-like, while the other forms a series of small cascades. All the falls are in an area of about 300 square metres, the falls are located at the STAR Tollway Bulihan exit. From Manila, buses to Batangas City or Lipa City stop at Malvar, jeepneys and tricycle service are also available from the town. The 5-kilometre stretch of road is smoothly paved, there are 300 concrete steps down the river at the falls. The San Juan River, the longest river in Batangas, connects Lipa, a recently emerged local attraction in the area is a mango farm known as Sa Manggahan. Forty-five minutes away at Alabang, it is near the C-Joist Concrete Ventures Group plant, the countrys third Thoroughbred race track is nearby, as are the Immaculate Conception Parish Church of Malvar and the Miguel Malvar Shrine

2. Spanish naming customs – Spanish naming customs are historical traditions for naming children practised in Spain. According to these customs, a persons name consists of a name followed by two family names. The first surname is usually the fathers first surname, and the second the mothers first surname, in recent years, the order of the surnames can be reversed at birth if it is so decided by the parents. Currently in Spain, people bear a single or composite given name, a composite given name comprises two single names, for example Juan Pablo is considered not to be a first and a second forename, but a single composite forename. The two surnames refer to each of the parental families, traditionally, a persons first surname is the fathers first surname, and the second one is the mothers first surname. From 2013, if the parents of a child are unable to agree on order of surnames, the law also grants a person the option, upon reaching adulthood, of reversing the order of their surnames. Each surname can also be composite, the parts usually linked by the y or e. For example, a name might be Juan Pablo Fernández de Calderón García-Iglesias, consisting of a forename, a paternal surname. There are times when it is impossible, by inspection of a name, for example, the writer Sebastià Juan Arbó was alphabetised by the Library of Congress for many years under Arbó, assuming that Sebastiá and Juan were both given names. However, Juan was actually his first surname, to resolve questions like this, which typically involve very common names, one must consult the person involved, or legal documents. A man named José Antonio Gómez Iglesias would normally be addressed as either señor Gómez or señor Gómez Iglesias instead of señor Iglesias, because Gómez is his first surname. Furthermore, Mr. Gómez might be addressed as José Antonio, José, Pepe, Antonio, or Toño Jose, Joselito, Josito, Joselillo, Josico or Joselín, Antoñito, Tonín or Nono. Very formally, he could be addressed with an honorific as don José Antonio or don José, colombian writer Gabriel García Márquez is sometimes incorrectly referred to in English media as Mr. Márquez, when it should be Mr. García Márquez or, simply, Mr. García. It is not unusual, when the first surname is very common, for example, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero is often called simply Zapatero, the name he inherited from his mothers family, since Rodríguez is a common surname and may be ambiguous. The same occurs with another former Spanish Socialist leader, Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, with the poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca, as these peoples paternal names are very common, they are often called with their maternal names. It would nonetheless be a mistake to index José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero under Z as Zapatero, a practical option to spare an explanation is using a single surname composed of two separate words. Parents choose their childs name, which must be recorded in the Registro Civil to establish his or her legal identity. With few restrictions, parents can now choose any name, common sources of names are the parents taste, honouring a relative, the General Roman Calendar nomina, legislation in Spain under Franco legally limited cultural naming customs to only Christian and typical Spanish names

3. First Philippine Republic – The Philippine Republic, more commonly known as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a nascent revolutionary government in the Philippines. The First Philippine Republic was established after the Philippine Revolution against Spanish Empire, in December 1898, Spain sold the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris, making the United States formally the Philippines colonial power. The Malolos Constitution establishing the First Philippine Republic was proclaimed the following month, the Philippine–American War began in February 1898, which the Philippine Republic lost. The Philippine Republic was the first constitutional republic in Asia, in 1896, the Philippine Revolution began against Spanish colonial rule. In 1897, Philippine forces led by Aguinaldo signed a ceasefire with the Spanish authorities and Aguinaldo, in April 1898, the Spanish–American War broke out. The U. S. Navys Asiatic Squadron, then in Hong Kong, on May 1,1898, the U. S. Navy decisively defeated the Spanish Navy in the Battle of Manila Bay. On December 10,1898, the 1898 Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Spanish–American War, the Malolos Constitution written by the congress was proclaimed on 22 January 1899, creating what is known today as the First Philippine Republic, with Aguinaldo as its president. The constitution was approved by delegates to the Malolos Congress on January 20,1899, the convention had earlier elected Aguinaldo president on January 1,1899, leading to his inauguration on January 23. Parts of the constitution giving Aguinaldo the power to rule by decree are of particular interest. S. American forces pushing north from Manila after the outbreak of fighting captured Caloocan on February 10. On March 29, as American forces threatened Malolos, the seat of government moved to San Isidro, on February 4,1899, armed conflict erupted in Manila between Philippine Republic forces and American forces occupying the city subsequent to the conclusion of the Spanish–American War. The fighting quickly escalated into the Second Battle of Manila, with Philippine Republic forces being driven out of the city. On March 31, American forces captured Malolos, the seat of the Philippine Republic government. Emilio Aguinaldo and the core of the government had by then moved to San Isidro. Peace negotiations with the American Schurman Commission during a ceasefire in April–May 1899 failed. The Philippine Republic core government had moved by then to Bamban, Tarlac, Aguinaldos party had already left Tarlac, the last capital of the Philippine Republic, by the time American troops occupied it on November 13. American forces captured Calumpit, Bulacan on April 27 and, moving north, captured Apalit, Pampanga with little opposition on May 4 and San Fernando and this forced the seat of government to be shifted according to the demands of the military situation. In October 1899 American forces were in San Fernando, Pampanga, on October 12, an American offensive to the north forced the Philippine Republic to relocate its headquarters in November to Tarlac, and then to Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. On November 13, under pressure by American forces, Aguinaldo, barbara in order to evade pursuing American forces

4. Emilio Aguinaldo – He was captured in Palanan, Isabela by American forces on March 23,1901, which brought an end to his presidency. In 1935, Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully for president of the Philippine Commonwealth against Manuel Quezon, after the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941, he cooperated with the new rulers, even making a radio appeal for the surrender of the American and Filipino forces on Bataan. He was arrested as a collaborator after the Americans returned but was freed in a general amnesty. He studied at Colegio de San Juan de Letran but wasnt able to finish his studies due to outbreak of cholera in 1882, Emilio became the Cabeza de Barangay of Binakayan, a chief barrio of Cavite el Viejo, when he was only 17 years old to avoid conscription. In 1895 the Maura Law that called for the reorganization of local governments was enacted, at the age of 25 years old, Aguinaldo became Cavite Viejos first gobernadorcillo capitan municipal while on a business trip in Mindoro. On January 1,1896, he married Hilaria del Rosario and they had five children, Carmen Aguinaldo-Melencio, Emilio Jun R. Aguinaldo Jr. Maria Aguinaldo-Poblete, Cristina Aguinaldo-Suntay and Miguel Aguinaldo. Hilaria died of leprosy on March 6,1921 at the age of 44, nine years later, on July 14,1930, Aguinaldo married Maria Agoncillo at Barasoain Church. She died on May 29,1963, a year before Aguinaldo himself, Aguinaldo served three-terms as mayor and vice-mayor of his home town Kawit Cavite. Great-Grandson Emilio Orange M. Aguinaldo IV married news reported abs-cbn Bernadette Sembrano in 2007, on January 1,1895, Aguinaldo became a Freemason, joining Pilar Lodge No. 203, Imus, Cavite by the codename Colon, Aguinaldo joined the organization and used the nom de guerre Magdalo, in honor of Mary Magdalene. The local chapter of Katipunan in Cavite was established and named Sangguniang Magdalo, the Katipunan-led Philippine Revolution against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896 in San Juan del Monte. However, Aguinaldo and other Cavite rebels initially refused to join in the offensive alleging lack of arms, in August 1896, as coordinated attacks broke out and sparked the revolution beginning in Manila. Emilio Aguinaldo marched from Kawit with 600 men and launched a series of skirmishes at Imus which eventually ended in open hostilities against Spanish troops stationed there. On September 1, with the aid of Captain Jose Tagle of Imus, a Spanish relief column commanded by Brig. General Ernesto de Aguirre had been dispatched from Manila to aid the beleaguered Spanish defenders of Imus, supported only by a hundred troops and by a cavalry, Aguirre gave the impression that he had been sent out to suppress a minor disturbance. Aguinaldo and his men counter-attacked but suffered losses and almost cost his own life. Despite the success, Aguirre did not press the attack and felt the inadequacy of his troops, during the lull in the fighting, Aguinaldos troops reorganized and prepared for another Spanish attack. On September 3, Aguirre came back with a larger force of 3,000 men

5. Macario Sakay – Macario Sakay y de León was a Filipino general who took part in the 1896 Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire and in the Philippine-American War. After the war was declared over by the United States in 1902, Sakay continued resistance, Sakay was born around 1869 or 1878 along Tabora Street, Tondo, in the City of Manila. He first worked as an apprentice in a manufacturing shop. He was also a tailor and an actor, performing in a number of plays including Principe Baldovino, Doce Pares de Francia. An original member of the Katipunan movement, of which he joined in 1894, in 1899, he continued the struggle for Philippine independence against the United States. Early in the Philippine-American War, he was jailed for seditious activities, Sakay was one of the founders of the Partido Nacionalista, which sought to achieve Philippine independence through legal means. The party appealed to the Philippine Commission, but the Commission passed the Sedition Law, Sakay thus took up arms again. Contrary to popular belief, the Philippine resistance to American rule did not end with the capture of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, one of these forces was led by Sakay. In May 1902, Sakay and his men declared open resistance to the US that lasted for several years, around 1902 Sakay established the Tagalog Republic somewhere in the mountains of Rizal. His first military circulars and presidential orders as President and Commander-in-Chief came in 1903, Sakays military circular No.1 was dated May 5,1903, and his Presidential Order No.1 was dated March 18,1903. 7, dated June 19,1903, the government of the Tagalog Republic affirmed the formation of an organized army, the army units were composed of Kabohans, Camilleros, Companias (117 soldiers, equivalent to a company, and Batalions. However, in Sakays Second Manifesto, dated April 5,1904,5, dated May 25,1903, the government assigned the following color codes for the divisions of its army, artillery, infantry, cavalry, engineering, chief-of-staff, sanitary, and marines. According to General Leon Villafuerte, his, Carreons and Sakays forces planned to kidnap Alice Roosevelt Longworth, the plan was to trade her with the Americans in exchange for the immediate recognition of Philippine independence. The kidnapping was not attempted since Longworth postponed her trip by train to Baguio, in 1905, Filipino labour leader Dominador Gómez was authorised by Governor-General Henry Clay Ide to negotiate for the surrender of Sakay and his men. Gómez assured Sakay that these conditions would be acceptable to the Americans, Sakay believed that the struggle had shifted to constitutional means, and that the establishment of the assembly was a means to winning independence. With Villafuerte, Sakay travelled to Manila, where they were welcomed and invited to receptions and banquets. One invitation came from the Constabulary Chief, Colonel Harry H. Bandholtz, it was a trap, at his trial, Sakay was accused of bandolerismo under the Brigandage Act of Nov.12,1902, which interpreted all acts of armed resistance to American rule as banditry. The American colonial Supreme Court of the Philippines upheld the decision, Sakay was sentenced to death, and hanged on 13 September 1907

6. Batangas – Batangas, officially known as the Province of Batangas is a province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon. Its capital is the city of Batangas and is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north, across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the island of Mindoro and to the west lies the South China Sea. Poetically, Batangas is often referred to by its ancient name Kumintáng, Batangas is one of the most popular tourist destinations near Metro Manila. It is home to the well-known Taal Volcano, one of the Decade Volcanoes, and Taal Heritage town, Batangas City has the second largest international seaport in the Philippines after Metro Manila. The first recorded name of the province was Kumintáng, whose center was the present-day municipality of Balayan. Balayan was considered the most progressive town of the region, an eruption of Taal Volcano destroyed a significant portion of the town, causing residents to transfer to Bonbon, the name eventually encompassing the bounds of the modern province. The term Batangan means a raft which the people used so that they could fish in the nearby Taal Lake. It also meant the numerous logs found in the Calumpang River, long before the arrival of the Spaniards in the Philippines, large centers of population already thrived in Batangas. Native settlements lined the Pansipit River, a major waterway, the province had been trading with the Chinese since Yuan Dynasty until the first phase of Ming Dynasty in the 13th and 15th century. Inhabitants of the province were also trading with Japan and India, the Philippines ancestors were Buddhists and Hindus, but far from India and intermixed with animistic beliefs. Archaeological findings show that before the settlement of the Spaniards in the country and this was shown by certain jewelry, made from a chambered nautilus shell, where tiny holes were created by a drill-like tool. The prehistoric Batangueños were influenced by India as shown in the origin of most languages from Sanskrit, a Buddhist image was reproduced in mould on a clay medallion in bas-relief from the municipality of Calatagan. According to experts, the image in the pot strongly resembles the portrayal of Buddha in Siam, India. The pot shows Buddha Amithaba in the tribhanga pose inside an oval nimbus, scholars also noted that there is a strong Mahayanic orientation in the image, since the Boddhisattva Avalokitesvara was also depicted. One of the archaeological finds was in January 1941, where two crude stone figures were found in Palapat in the municipality of Calatagan. They were later donated to the National Museum, one of them was destroyed during World War II. Eighteen years later, a grave was excavated in nearby Punta Buaya, pieces of brain coral were carved behind the heads of the 12 remains that were found. The remains were accompanied by furniture that could be traced as early as the 14th century

7. Captaincy General of the Philippines – The Captaincy General of the Philippines was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire. The Captaincy General encompassed the Spanish East Indies, which included the Philippine Islands and it was founded in 1565 with the first permanent Spanish settlements. However, in 1821, following the independence of Mexico, all control was transferred to Madrid, antonio Pigafetta, the expeditions chronicler and one of only 18 original crew members to survive Ferdinand Magellans circumnavigation of the globe, recorded all details of the voyage. On 5 June 1569, Guido de Lavezaris, the treasurer in the Archipelago. A letter from another official, Andres de Mirandaola, also described briefly this encounter with the Portuguese, the danger of another attack led the Spaniards to remove their camp from Cebu to Panay, which they considered a safer place. Legazpi himself, in his report to the Viceroy in New Spain and it was in Panay that the conquest of Luzon was planned, and launched on 8 May 1570. Two of Lepazpis Lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo conquered Luzons northern region, in 1574 the Captaincy General of the Philippines was created as a dependency of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1584, the Real Audiencia of Manila is established by King Felipe II, the Captaincy had its capital in Cebu from 1565 to 1595, and in Manila from 1595 until 1898. Ciriaco González Carbajal was appointed as Oidor of the Audiencia of Manila and was instructed to abide by the Royal Ordinance of Mayors of 1782, a month earlier, on October 23, the Intendencia of Manila had been attached to the Captaincy General of the Philippines. Until 1822, all General Captains were civilians, but after that year they were chosen among the military. Mindanao, Caraga, Misamis, Zamboanga, Nueva Guipúzcoa sultanate of Sulu Joló Marianas, Marianas capital Agaña, palau Bonin Islands Spratly Islands Caroline Islands Marshall Islands Special Districts, Benguet, Ticao and Masbate, Comandancia del Corregidor, Lower territories of Agno. Spanish rule in the Philippines ceased in 1898 after the war with the United States, most of the remaining territories in the Pacific Ocean were sold to Germany during the German-Spanish Treaty of 1899. Spanish East Indies Governor-General of the Philippines Royal Audience of Manila Spanish Empire Viceroyalty of New Spain — centered in México History of the Philippines History of the Philippines

8. Manila – Manila, officially City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines. Founded on June 24,1571, by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi and it is situated on the eastern shore of Manila Bay and is home to many landmarks, some of which date back to the 16th century. In 2012, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Manila as a global city, the city proper is home to 1,780,148 people in 2015, forming the historic core of Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines. The metropolitan area, which includes the much larger Quezon City, Manila is also the most densely populated city proper in the world, with 41,515 people per square kilometer. The term Manila is commonly used to refer to either the whole area or the city proper. Manila is located on the shore of the Manila Bay on one of the finest harbors in the country. The city has six districts for the lower house of the Philippine Congress. Manila was once ruled by the Kingdom of Tondo before it became a province of the Majapahit Empire. During the Bruneian invasion of the Philippines, Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei captured Seludong and renamed it Maynilà, Maynilà became a vassal state of the Sultanate of Brunei, established to overpower Tondo. In 1571, conquistadors arrived from Mexico, across the Pacific Ocean, Spanish missionaries soon Christianized the city, incorporated Tondo and built some of the oldest churches in the country, including San Agustin Church. The conquistadors renamed the area Nuevo Reino de Castilla, Manila became the center of Spanish activity in the Far East and one end of the Manila–Acapulco galleon trade route linking Spanish America with Asia, one of the earliest examples of globalization. Because of its location on Pacific trade routes, Manila received the moniker Pearl of the Orient. Spanish rule of the Philippine archipelago lasted for more than three centuries, until 1898, order was usually quickly restored and the city returned to the business of trade. In the 19th century, Manila was one of the most modern cities in Asia, before the Spanish–American War, it saw the rise of the Philippine Revolution. After the war, the United States took control, switched the official language from Spanish to English, near the end of World War II, during the Battle of Manila, most of the city was flattened by intensive aerial bombardment by the United States Air Force. As a result, relatively little remains of Manilas prewar and colonial architecture, although there are ongoing projects, especially within the old walled city. Maynilà, the Filipino name for the city, originated from the word nilà, referring to a mangrove tree that grew on the delta of the Pasig River. The flowers were made into garlands that, according to folklore, were offered to statues on religious altars or in churches

9. Philippines – The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Islamic nations occurred, then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were also among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos

10. Katipunan – The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The Tagalog word katipunan, literally meaning association, comes from the root word tipon and its official revolutionary name was Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan. The Katipunan is also known by its acronym, KKK, being a secret organization, its members were subjected to the utmost secrecy and were expected to abide by the rules established by the society. Aspiring applicants were given standard initiation rites in order to members of the society. At first, membership in the Katipunan was only open to male Filipinos, later, the Katipunan had its own publication, Kalayaan which issued its first and last printing in March 1896. Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within the society, and Filipino literature was expanded by some of its prominent members, in planning the revolution, Bonifacio contacted Rizal for his full-fledged support for the Katipunan in exchange for a promise to rescue Rizal from his detention. In May 1896, a delegation was sent to the Emperor Meiji in order to solicit funds, the name Katipunan comes from the full Tagalog name for the society, Kataastaasan Kagalang-galang Katipunan nang mga Anak nang Bayan. The Katipunan and the Cuerpo de Compromisarios were, effectively, successor organizations of La Liga Filipina and this organization was part of the late 19th century Propaganda Movement in the Philippines. Katipunan founders Andrés Bonifacio, Ladislao Diwa, and Teodoro Plata were all members of La Liga and were influenced by the ideals of the Propaganda Movement in Spain. Marcelo H. del Pilar, another leader of the Propaganda Movement in Spain, the Katipunan had initiation ceremonies that were copied from masonic rites. It also had a hierarchy of rank that was similar to that of freemasonry, Del Pilars plan wins over that of Rizal. Del Pilar and Rizal had the end, even if each took a different road to it. Captured Katipunan members, who were members of La Liga. One group insisted on La Ligas principle of a peaceful reformation while the other espoused armed revolution, Bonifacio did establish the Katipunan when it was becoming apparent to anti-Spanish Filipinos that societies like the La Liga Filipina would be suppressed by colonial authorities. He was assisted by his two friends, Teodoro Plata and Ladislao Diwa, plus Valentín Díaz and Deodato Arellano, the Katipunan was founded along Azcarraga St. near Elcano St. in San Nicolas, Manila. Despite their reservations about the reformation that Rizal espoused, they named Rizal honorary president without his knowledge. The Katipunan, established as a secret organization, went under the name Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan. The rise of the Katipunan signaled the end of the crusade to secure reforms from Spain by means of a peaceful campaign, the Propaganda Movement led by Rizal, del Pilar, Jaena and others had failed its mission, hence, Bonifacio started the militant movement for independence

11. Philippine Revolutionary Army

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