Essay About Athletes

Athletes as Role Models

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Athletes as Role Models

Athlets have been lookd up to as role models for as long as sports have exsted. There is just something attractive about the thought of being in good physical condition and being talented in sports. But, are athlets the kind of people that children should be looking up to for direction and guidance? Many children often look up to the professional athletes as role models. In fact, in 1995 Sports Illustrated for Kids did a survey for kids who were ages 7 through 12 about who their role model was. The majority of the kids answered that a professional athlete was who they most looked up to. Only four percent of the children answered that their role model was one of thir parents. Because of today?s media, athletes are constantly in the public eye. Everything they do on and off of the playing field. Some professional athletes speak a positive message through their fame by demonstrating constructive ideas such as teamwork and commitment while they are on the field. Even off of the playing field some athletes set a good example by visiting children in schools, going to hospitals, or even setting up foundations and organizations to help the ill and less fortunate people. However, other athletes are not as considerate to the fact that someone may be looking up to them, some athletes are not concerned about anything other than the sport they are getting paid to play and themselves. These athletes are the ones that propose questions over whether athletes should be considered role models or not. A role model can be defined as a person whose behavior, example or success is or can be emulated by others, especially young people. Who would want their child looking up to someone who has been convicted of domestic violence or has a drug addiction? It is an argument of opinion that cannot be settled.
The side of athletes most commonly seen is when they are on the field. Athletes can be a very positive influence while on the playing field for many reasons. Teamwork is displayed in sports such as football, baseball, soccer, and hockey. It is where all the players working together and are all striving to reach the same goal. Anybody watching a game such as hockey or baseball can clearly see that the players must work together in both offense and defense to win the game.

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This display of teamwork can be easily be reflected by anyone watching. For example, if a young boy who plays on a little league hockey team is watching his favorite professional hockey team play on television and he sees how the players are constantly passing the puck to each other and are working together to score, then he can display the same conduct at a later time during his own game. Dedication is another positive characteristic that can be displayed by athletes. It takes a lot of dedication to be good a playing a sport. Sometimes a game may not be going quite as well as expected and the team may be making a few careless errors, but to win the game the players must stay dedicated. The athletes have got to keep thinking positively and stay committed to the game. Motivation is another positive aspect of athletes. Players and coaches must stay motivated as well as motivating each other. It is very important for athletes to know that someone is supporting them. An example of motivation on the field is when a baseball player hits a homerun. The entire team steps onto the field and waits at home plate to congratulate their teammate. Once again, the simple gesture of motivation can be easily mimicked by a child watching. A some what different perspective of positive influences of athletes is the fact that if children look up to athletes then they will want to get off the couch and become active and stay in shape so that they can look and act just like a professional athlete. If a child admires a certain athlete that they see on television then the child will want to imitate that athlete and possibly join a sports league of some kind. It is proven that children who are active in sports are less likely to become involved in drugs and because they have a higher self-esteem. Also, obesity is a growing problem in today?s world and sports can promote eating properly and staying healthy. The Wheaties cereal company demonstrates this by displaying professional athletes on their cereal boxes so that children will eat Wheaties just like the professional athletes do.
The positive influences of athletes can also be seen off of the playing field. Professional athletes are well known for going out and helping with charities and fund raisers. Many famous athletes such as Troy Aikman and Lance Armstrong have started charities in their own names to help raise money for children overcoming cancer or other diseases. There are also foundations that allow sick children to meet their favorite athlete and allow the children to spend a little bit of quality time with the athletes. Some athletes will even take time out of their own schedule to go and visit junior high and elementary schools to encourage the students to stay in school and to promote drug awareness. The involvement in charity work and within school systems displays an athlete?s generosity towards other people and can also show the unselfishness of the athlete. By the athletes doing these acts of generosity, it shows children that it is acceptable to do something pleasant for somebody that they may not even know. Another quality that athletes can demonstrate off of the playing field is commitment. Professional athletes cannot simply walk off the field and give up when they make errors during a game or if they get discouraged. Although an athlete may not want to continue on with the game, they stick with it, they stay committed. Many children have a tendency to want to quit something if they feel they are not good at it but if they can see that athletes have flaws and are not perfect at what they do but that they continue to stay committed to the team, then maybe the child will feel like they too can remain commited to their own team.
There are many ways that athletes can have a positive affect on children or even any other spectators both on and off of their playing field. Qualities such as teamwork, motivation, and dedication can all be easily spotted on the field. Athletes can also help promote eating healthy and staying in good physical condition. However, there are also many qualities off of the playing field that can be viewed as positive influences for children. Some professional athletes are very active in charities and foundations for sick and less fortunate children and others visit students in schools. Either way, the athletes are demonstrating kindness to other people and that is a very good quality of a role model. However, there is another side to athletes that is not so generous and caring. Although athletes practice a lot of very positive manners, they are still humans and they do make mistakes. Some athletes can get carried away during a game and become very rude and disrespectful towards coaches, other players, and even fans. There is a wide spread of problems off of the field such as drugs and gambling that tends to get a lot of athletes into trouble. There are also problems such as illegitimate children and athletes committing crimes that are unfavorable in a parent?s eyes as their child?s role model.
Although there are many positive examples of athletes being good role models, there are also many negative examples. While on the playing field many players and even coaches often get very angry when things do not go quite their way. Players and coaches will yell and sometimes actually fight with one another with no respect for the spectators or their own teammates. Hockey is more commonly known for its violent fights and its overall aggressive features. Sometimes players will try to hurt their opponents by using the sport against them. For instance, sometimes in baseball, a pitcher might throw the ball and purposely hit the batter. An extreme case of this aggressiveness is clear when referring to the boxing match in 1997 between Evander Holyfield and Mike Tyson. Tyson was so mad and frustrated during the fight that he bit a part of Holyfield?s ear. What kind of parent would want their child to go around biting other children all because of what they saw on television? Athletes will also display bad conduct by throwing equipment or punching and hitting the things around them. If a child were to copy this sort of behavior somebody near by may end up injured or hurt. There are also less obvious ways that athletes are bad influences while on the field. Sometimes players will cheat so that their team can win or even just to make themselves look good. In baseball, some players put cork inside of their wooden bats so that the bats are lighter and easier to swing. Some players or even whole teams will take money as a bribe to purposely lose a game. For example in 1919, the Chicago White Sox received money from someone and agreed to wreck the World Series. Actions such as cheating can even be taken outside of just sports. If a child caught on to their favorite athlete cheating then he or she might try to cheat in school because it appears to be acceptable. Just as the good examples can be mimicked by children, the bad examples can and unfortunately will be mimicked too.
Role models can set bad examples while on the playing field but their example off of the playing field can get even worse. One of the greatest problems among athletes is addiction. Some examples are drug addictions, alcohol addictions, and even gambling addictions. Although there is a drug policy for professional sports, many athletes use drugs anyway. Various professional athletes stepped forward and spoke about the wide use of drugs and it is estimated that about 20% to 60% of all professional athletes use some sort of supplement or stimulant. Drug use among young people in today?s society is already too high, now children are hearing about and watching their favorite team?s players talk about using drugs. Alcohol and gambling are also two major problems with athletes. Some athletes will get drunk and say things do things that they did not mean and then they can end up arrested. Getting arrested and being in trouble with authorities is not something that should be seen as acceptable to children. Gambling is yet another problem within the sports industry. Players often bet for or against their own team for large amounts of money. Sometimes the gambling can even go as far as turning into cheating by teams purposely losing games for money. Yet another negative factor to athletes is illegitimate children. This is mostly a problem within the NBA. In 1998, an NBA agent who dealt with paternity claims figured that there is a child for everyone in the NBA and for every guy that does not have a child, there is another player with two or three children. Children should not grow up thinking that it is alright to have multiple children with multiple people. Another problem that affects children is watching athletes skip college to pursue a career in sports. These days it is nearly impossible to find a job without some sort of college degree and the odds of becoming a professional athlete are about 22,000 to 1. Some people see that a professional athlete might have skipped college and went straight into playing a professional sport so maybe they can do it too, then they lose sight of realistic goals and the education needed to really succeed in the world.


Athletes can set an example wherever they are, whether they are on the playing field in front of thousands of people or off the playing field out doing their own thing. Athletes can be both a positive and encouraging role model or they can be viewed as someone who is not a good example for children today.



For the collection of competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, see Athletics (physical culture). For other uses, see Athletics (disambiguation).

Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.[1] The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, and race walking.

The results of racing events are decided by finishing position (or time, where measured), while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts. The simplicity of the competitions, and the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most commonly competed sports in the world. Athletics is mostly an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country.

Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BC. The rules and format of the modern events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century, and were then spread to other parts of the world. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations and its member federations.

The athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, which incorporates track and field, marathon running and race walking. Other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Athletes with a physical disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the IPC Athletics World Championships.

The word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής (athlētēs, "combatant in public games") from ἆθλον (athlon, "prize") or ἆθλος (athlos, "competition").[2] Initially, the term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i.e. sporting competition based primarily on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term athletics acquired a more narrow definition in Europe and came to describe sports involving competitive running, walking, jumping and throwing. This definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom and most of the areas of the former British Empire. Furthermore, foreign words in many Germanic and Romance languages which are related to the term athletics also have a similar meaning.

In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, maintaining a more historic usage of the term. The word "athletics" is rarely used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, and is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking and marathon running (although cross country running is typically considered as a separate sport).

History[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

Athletic contests in running, walking, jumping and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric.[3] Athletics events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed festival and high jumping appearing in tombs from as early as of 2250 BC.[4] The Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded circa 1800 BC, and the thirty-day meeting included running and stone-throwing among its sporting events.[5] The original and only event at the first Olympics in 776 BC was a stadium-length running event known as the stadion. This later expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon. Athletics competitions also took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were founded later around 500 BC.[6]

Modern era[edit]

The Cotswold Olimpick Games, a sports festival which emerged in 17th century England, featured athletics in the form of sledgehammer throwing contests.[7] Annually, from 1796 to 1798, L'Olympiade de la République was held in revolutionary France, and is an early forerunner to the modern summer Olympic Games. The premier event of this competition was a running event, but various ancient Greek disciplines were also on display. The 1796 Olympiade marked the introduction of the metric system into the sport.[8]

Athletics competitions were held about 1812 at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst,[9] and in 1840 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire at the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt. The Royal Military Academy at Woolwich held an organised competition in 1849, and a regular series of closed meetings open only to undergraduates, was held by Exeter College, Oxford from 1850.[10] The annual Wenlock Olympian Games, first held in 1850 in Wenlock, England, incorporated athletics events into its sports programme.[11]

The first modern-style indoor athletics meetings were recorded shortly after in the 1860s, including a meet at Ashburnham Hall in London which featured four running events and a triple jump competition.[12][13]

The Amateur Athletic Association (AAA) was established in England in 1880 as the first national body for the sport of athletics and began holding its own annual athletics competition – the AAA Championships. The United States also began holding an annual national competition – the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships – first held in 1876 by the New York Athletic Club.[14] Athletics became codified and standardized via the English AAA and other general sports organisations in the late 19th century, such as the Amateur Athletic Union (founded in the US in 1888) and the Union des sociétés françaises de sports athlétiques (founded in France in 1889).

An athletics competition was included in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and it has been as one of the foremost competitions at the quadrennial multi-sport event ever since. Originally for men only, the 1928 Olympics saw the introduction of women's events in the athletics programme. Athletics is part of the Paralympic Games since the inaugural Games in 1960. Athletics has a very high-profile during major championships, especially the Olympics, but otherwise is less popular.

An international governing body, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF), was founded in 1912; it adopted its current name, the International Association of Athletics Federations, in 2001. The IAAF established separate outdoor World Championships in 1983. In modern times, athletes can receive money for racing, putting an end to the so-called "amateurism" that existed before.

The Comité International Sports des Sourds had been formed by 1922, to govern international deaf sports, including athletics.[15]

The first organized international competitions for athletes with a physical disability (not deaf) began in 1952, when the first international Stoke Mandeville Games were organized for World War II veterans.[15][16] This only included athletes in a wheelchair. This inspired the first Paralympic Games, held in 1960. Competitions would over time be expanded to include mainly athletes with amputations, cerebral palsy and visual impairment, in addition to wheelchair events.

Events[edit]

See also: List of athletics events

The International Association of Athletics Federations, the sport's governing body, defines athletics in six disciplines: track and field, road running, race walking, cross country running, mountain running, and trail running[17] (mountain running was added in 2003[18] and trail running was added in 2015[19][20][21]). All forms of athletics are individual sports with the exception of relay races. However, athletes' performances are often tallied together by country at international championships, and in the case of cross country and certain road races the finishing positions or times of the top athletes from each team or country are combined to declare a team victor.

Track and field[edit]

Main article: Track and field

Track and field competitions emerged in the late 19th century and were typically contested between athletes who were representing rival educational institutions, military organisations and sports clubs.[22] Participating athletes may compete in one or more events, according to their specialities. Men and women compete separately. Track and field comes in both indoor and outdoor formats, with most indoor competitions occurring in winter, while outdoor events are mostly held in summer. The sport is defined by the venue in which the competitions are held – the track and field stadium.

A variety of running events are held on the track which fall into three broad distance categories: sprints, middle-distance, and long-distance track events. Relay races feature teams comprising four runners each, who must pass a baton to their teammate after a specified distance with the aim of being the first team to finish. Hurdling events and the steeplechase are a variation upon the flat running theme in that athletes must clear obstacles on the track during the race. The field events come in two types – jumping and throwing competitions. In throwing events, athletes are measured by how far they hurl an implement, with the common events being the shot put, discus, javelin, and hammer throw. There are four common jumping events: the long jump and triple jump are contests measuring the horizontal distance an athlete can jump, while the high jump and pole vault are decided on the height achieved. Combined events, which include the decathlon (typically competed by men) and heptathlon (typically competed by women), are competitions where athletes compete in a number of different track and field events, with each performance going toward a final points tally.

The most prestigious track and field contests occur within athletics championships and athletics programmes at multi-sport events. The Olympic athletics competition and World Championships in Athletics, and the Paralympic athletics competition and IPC World Championships in Athletics, are the highest and most prestigious levels of competition in track and field. Track and field events have become the most prominent part of major athletics championships and many famous athletes within the sport of athletics come from this discipline. Discrete track and field competitions are found at national championships-level and also at annual, invitational track and field meets. Meetings range from elite competitions – such as those in the IAAF Diamond League series – to basic all comers track meets, inter-sports club meetings and schools events, which form the grassroots of track and field.

  • Note: Events in italics are competed at indoor world championships only

Road running[edit]

Main article: Road running

Road running competitions are running events (predominantly long distance) which are mainly conducted on courses of paved or tarmacroads, although major events often finish on the track of a main stadium. In addition to being a common recreational sport, the elite level of the sport – particularly marathon races – are one of the most popular aspects of athletics. Road racing events can be of virtually any distance, but the most common and well known are the marathon, half marathon, 10 km and 5 km. The marathon is the only road running event featured at the IAAF World Championships in Athletics and the Summer Olympics, although there is also an annual IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. The marathon is also the only road running event featured at the IPC Athletics World Championships and the Summer Paralympics. The World Marathon Majors series includes the five most prestigious marathon competitions at the elite level – the Berlin, Boston, Chicago, London, and New York City marathons.

The sport of road running finds its roots in the activities of footmen: male servants who ran alongside the carriages of aristocrats around the 18th century, and who also ran errands over distances for their masters. Foot racing competitions evolved from wagers between aristocrats, who pitted their footman against that of another aristocrat in order to determine a winner. The sport became professionalised as footmen were hired specifically on their athletic ability and began to devote their lives to training for the gambling events. The amateur sports movement in the late 19th century marginalised competitions based on the professional, gambling model. The 1896 Summer Olympics saw the birth of the modern marathon and the event led to the growth of road running competitions through annual events such as the Boston Marathon (first held in 1897) and the Lake Biwa Marathon and Fukuoka Marathons, which were established in the 1940s. The 1970s running boom in the United States made road running a common pastime and also increased its popularity at the elite level.[23]

Ekiden contests – which originated in Japan and remain very popular there – are a relay race variation on the marathon, being in contrast to the typically individual sport of road running.

Cross country running[edit]

Main article: Cross country running

Cross country running is the most naturalistic of the sports in athletics as competitions take place on open-air courses over surfaces such as grass, woodland trails, and earth. It is both an individual and team sport, as runners are judged on an individual basis and a points scoring method is used for teams. Competitions are typically long distance races of 4 km (2.5 mi) or more which are usually held in autumn and winter. Cross country's most successful athletes often compete in long-distance track and road events as well.

The Crick Run in England in 1838 was the first recorded instance of an organised cross country competition. The sport gained popularity in British, then American schools in the 19th century and culminated in the creation of the first International Cross Country Championships in 1903.[24] The annual IAAF World Cross Country Championships was inaugurated in 1973 and this remains the highest level of competition for the sport. A number of continental cross country competitions are held, with championships taking place in Asia, Europe, North America and South America. The sport has retained its status at the scholastic level, particularly in the United Kingdom and United States. At the professional level, the foremost competitions come under the banner of the IAAF Cross Country Permit Meetings.

While cross country competitions are no longer held at the Olympics, having featured in the athletics programme from 1912–1924, it has been present as one of the events within the modern pentathlon competition since the 1912 Summer Olympics. One variation on traditional cross country is mountain running, which incorporates significant uphill and/or downhill sections as an additional challenge to the course. Fell running and Orienteering are other competitive sports similar to cross country, although they feature an element of navigation which is absent from the set courses of cross country.

Racewalking[edit]

Main article: Racewalking

Racewalking is a form of competitive walking that usually takes place on open-air roads, although running tracks are also occasionally used. Racewalking is the only sport in athletics in which judges monitor athletes on their technique. Racewalkers must always have a foot in contact with the ground and their advancing leg must be straightened, not bent at the knee – failure to follow these rules results in disqualification from the race.[25]

Racewalking finds its roots in the sport of pedestrianism which emerged in the late 18th century in England. Spectators would gamble on the outcome of the walking competitions. The sport took on an endurance aspect and competitions were held over long distances or walkers would have to achieve a certain distance within a specified time frame, such as Centurion contests of walking 100 miles (160 km) within 24 hours.[25] During this period, racewalking was frequently held on athletics tracks for ease of measurement, and the 1908 Summer Olympics in London saw the introduction of the 3500-metre and 10-mile walks. Racewalking was briefly dropped from the Olympic programme in 1928, but the men's 50 kilometres race walk has been held at every Olympic Games but one since 1932. The men's 20 kilometres race walk was added to the Olympic athletics schedule in 1956 and the women's event was first held in 1992. The most common events in modern competition are over 10 km, 20 km and 50 km on roads, although women's 3 km and men's 5 km are held on indoor tracks.

The highest level racewalking competitions occur at the IAAF World Championships in Athletics and at the Summer Olympics, although the sport also has its own separate major competition – the IAAF World Race Walking Cup – which has been held since 1961. The IAAF World Race Walking Challenge forms the primary seasonal competition – athletes earn points for their performances at ten selected racewalking competitions and the highest scoring walkers are entered into that year's IAAF Race Walking Challenge Final.

Categories[edit]

  • Masters athletics, the age groups spanning five years for athletes aged 35 and above.
  • Senior athletics, open class with no upper age limit but, some limitations on younger people competing in endurance events
  • Under 23, athlete under the age of 23 years
  • Junior, athlete under the age of 20 years
  • Youth, athlete under the age of 18 years

Athletes with disabilities[edit]

Main article: Paralympic athletics

Athletes with physical disabilities have competed at separate international events since 1952. The International Paralympic Committee governs the competitions in athletics, and hosts the Paralympic Games, which have continued since 1960.[15][16]

Competitors at elite level competitions, are classified by disability, to arrange athletes with a similar disability in the same event. A classified T12 athlete for example, is a track athlete with a visual impairment.[26]

In wheelchair racing athletes compete in lightweight racing chairs. Most major marathons have wheelchair divisions and the elite racers consistently beat the runners on foot. The speed of wheel chair racers has caused difficulties for race organisers in properly staggering their start times compared to runners. A collision between Josh Cassidy (a wheelchair racer) and Tiki Gelana (a leading female marathoner) at the 2013 London Marathon brought the issue into the spotlight again.[27]

Occasionally, athletes with a disability excel to compete with able bodied athletes. Legally blind Marla Runyan ran in the 2000 and 2004 Olympics and won a gold medal in the 1500 metres at the 1999 Pan American Games. Oscar Pistorius, a double amputee, has competed in the 2012 Olympics. At the 2011 World Championships Pistorius successfully made it to the 400 metres semi-final round and won a silver medal as part of South Africa's 4x400 metres relay team. In Masters athletics it is far more common to make an accommodation for athletes with a disability. Blind Ivy Granstrom set numerous Masters world records while being guided around the track.

Venues[edit]

Professional athletics almost exclusively takes place in one of three types of venue: stadiums, set courses on grass or woodland, and road-based courses. Such venues ensure that events take place in a relatively standardised manner, as well as improving the safety of athletes and enjoyment for spectators. At a more basic level, many forms of athletics demand very little in terms of venue requirements; almost any open space or area of field can provide a suitable venue for basic running, jumping and throwing competitions.

Track and field stadium[edit]

A standard outdoor track is in the shape of a stadium,[28] 400 metres in length, and has at least eight lanes 1.22 m in width (small arenas might have six lanes). Older track facilities may have nonstandard track lengths, such as 440 yards (402.3 m; 1/4 mile) (common in the United States). Historically, tracks were covered by a dirt running surface. Modern All-weather running tracks are covered by a synthetic weather-resistant running surface, which typically consists of rubber (either black SBR or colored EPDM granules), bound by polyurethane or latex resins. Older tracks may be cinder-covered.

A standard indoor track is designed similarly to an outdoor track, but is only 200 metres in length and has between four and eight lanes, each with width between 0.90 m and 1.10 m.[29] Often, the bends of an indoor track will be banked to compensate for the small turning radius. However, because of space limitations, indoor tracks may have other nonstandard lengths, such as 160-yard (146.3 m) indoor track at Madison Square Garden used for the Millrose Games. Because of space limitations, meetings held at indoor facilities do not hold many of athletics events typically contested outdoors.

Cross country courses[edit]

There is no standardised form of cross country course and each venue is significantly defined by the environment it contains – some may be relatively flat and featureless, while others may be more challenging with natural obstacles, tight turns, and undulating ground. While a small number of purpose-built courses exist, the vast majority of cross country running courses are created by cordoning a specific area within any open natural land, typically a park, woodland or greenspace near a settlement.[30]

At the elite and professional level, courses must be looped and each lap must be between 1750 m and 2000 m in length. Severe obstacles such as deep ditches, high barriers and thick undergrowth not normally present; the course should be able to be completed whilst remaining on foot throughout. In order to maintain the sport's distinction from road running, the usage of unnatural or macadamised surfaces is generally kept to a minimum or avoided entirely.[30]

Because the majority of races take place on areas of grass, soil, mud or earth, weather conditions can significantly affect the difficulty of cross country courses, as snow and rain reduces traction and can create areas of standing water.

Road courses[edit]

The surface of road races is highly important and the IAAF dictate that the courses must be along man-made roads, bicycle paths or footpaths. Courses set along major roads of cities are typical of road running events, and traffic is usually cordoned off from the area during the competition. While soft ground, such as grass, is generally avoided, races may start and finish on soft ground or within a track and field stadium. Road racing courses come in two primary types: looped and point-to-point. Courses may be measured and designed to cover a standardised distance, such as 10 km (6.2 mi), or they may simply follow a set route between two landmarks.[31]

Road running courses over 5 km usually offer drinks or refreshment stations for runners at designated points alongside the course and medical professionals are present at the courses of major races due to the health risks involved with long-distance running.[31]

Elite road walks are conducted on closed loop courses (usually loops of 2,000 or 2,500 meters). Refreshment stations are also present over long distance walking competitions, with drinks being available on every lap for races longer than 10 km.[32]

Organizations[edit]

Since its foundation in 1912, the international governing body for athletics has been the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). It was initially known as the International Amateur Athletics Federation but changed later its name to reflect that the sport had moved away from amateurism towards professionalism in the late 1970s. The IAAF has 215 member nations and territories, which are divided into six continental areas (or area associations).[33] The six association areas are for Asia, Africa, Europe, Oceania, North America and South America. The sports within athletics do not have their own independent governing bodies at either international or continental level; instead, all fall under the athletics authorities.[34]

National level athletics organisations are responsible for the regulation of the sport within their respective countries and most major competitions have some form of permit or approval from their national body.

Competitions[edit]

Athletics competitions can be broadly divided into three types: international championships, national championships, and annual meetings and races. Athletics at international championships, or Games, represent the pinnacle of competition within the sport, and they are contested between athletes representing their country or region. The organisation of these competitions is usually overseen by either a world, continental, or regional athletics governing body. Athletes gain entry into these competitions by earning selection from their national athletics governing body, which is generally done by assessing athletes via their past achievements or performances at a national selection event. National championships are annual competitions endorsed by a national governing body which serve the purpose of deciding the country's best athlete in each event. Annual one-day meetings and races form the most basic level of competition and are the most common format of athletics contests. These events are often invitational and are organised by sports organisations, sports promoters, or other institutions.

Competitions typically feature only one of the sports within athletics. However, major outdoor international athletics championships and athletics competitions held as part of multi-sport events usually feature a combination of track and field, road running and racewalking events

International championships[edit]

Olympic Games[edit]

Main article: Athletics at the Summer Olympics

The modern Summer Olympics was the first event at which a global athletics competition took place. All the four major sports within athletics have featured in the Olympic athletics programme since its inception in 1896, although cross country has since been dropped. The Olympic competition is the most prestigious athletics contest, and many athletics events are among the most watched events at the Summer Olympics. A total of 47 athletics events are held at the Olympics, 24 for men and 23 for women (as of London 2012). The events within the men's and women's programmes are either identical or have a similar equivalent, with the sole exception being that men contest the 50 km race walk.[35]

Paralympic Games[edit]

Main article: Athletics at the Paralympic Games

The Summer Paralympics include athletes with a physical disability. Track and field, and road events have featured in the Paralympic athletics programme since its inception in 1960. The Paralympic competition is the most prestigious athletics contest where athletes with a physical disability compete.

Athletics at the Paralympic Games also include wheelchair racing where athletes compete in lightweight racing chairs. Athletes with a visual impairment compete with a sighted guide. At the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London, for the first time at an international athletics event, the guides received medals,[36] such as the pilots in cycling, and the guides at the Paralympic Winter Games have done for a while.

World Championships[edit]

The IAAF World Championships in Athletics is the primary global athletics championships held by IAAF. The biennial competition was first held in 1983 and now features an event programme which is identical to the Olympics. Thus, road running, racewalking and track and field are the sports which feature at the competition. Cross country running has its own discrete global championships – the IAAF World Cross Country Championships – which has been held annually since 1973. The IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics is a biennial athletics championships which features solely indoor track and field events. The foremost separate road running event is the annual IAAF World Half Marathon Championships (formerly World Road Running Championships). While not having official world championship status, the biennial IAAF World Race Walking Cup fulfils a similar role for the sport of racewalking. Outdoor track and field is the only sport in athletics that does not have a its own distinct global championship which is separate from other types of athletics, although the IAAF Continental Cup (a quadrennial competition between continental teams) is composed entirely of outdoor track and field events.

Other world championships include the IAAF World Junior and World Youth Championships in Athletics, which are for athletes under-19 and under-17, respectively. World Masters Athletics conducts the World Masters Athletics Championships for athletes in 5-year age divisions over the age of 35. The now defunct IAAF World Road Relay Championships served as the global event for ekiden marathon relay races.

Elite athletes with a physical disability compete at the World Para Athletics Championships and at the Commonwealth Games.

Commonwealth Games[edit]

Main article: Athletics at the Commonwealth Games

Athletics is one of the sports at the quadrennial Commonwealth Games competition. It has been a Commonwealth Games sport since the inaugural edition of the event's precursor, the 1930 British Empire Games. It is a core sport and must be included in the sporting programme of each edition of the Games.

Universiade[edit]

Main article: Athletics at the Universiade

Athletics is one of the sports at the biennial summer Universiade competition. It has been one of the event's competed sports since the inaugural edition.

Culture and media[edit]

Athletics, and its athletes in particular, has been artistically depicted since ancient times – one of the surviving instances include runners and high jumpers in the motifs of Ancient Egyptian tombs dating from 2250 BC. Athletics was much respected in Ancient Greece and the events within the ancient pentathlon provided inspiration for large statues such as the Discobolus and Discophoros, and for motifs on countless vase and pottery works. Aristotle discussed the significance of the pentathlon in his treatiseRhetoric and reflected on the athlete aesthetic of the period: "a body capable of enduring all efforts, either of the racecourse or of bodily strength...This is why the athletes in the pentathlon are most beautiful".[37]

Films about athletics are overwhelmingly focused on running events: the 1962 film The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner (based on the book of the same name) explores cross country running as a means of escape. Chariots of Fire, perhaps one of the most well-known athletics films, is a fictionalised account of Eric Liddell and Harold Abrahams's chase for sprint gold medals at the 1924 Olympics. Track and field has been the subject of American films such as Personal Best (1981) and Across the Tracks (1991). Biopics are found within the genre, including Prefontaine (regarding Steve Prefontaine) and Jim Thorpe – All-American (1951) featuring Burt Lancaster as Thorpe. Documentaries are also common with examples such as 2007 film Spirit of the Marathon, which follows runners' preparations for the 2005 Chicago Marathon.

Books on the subject are predominantly non-fiction, and tend towards the forms of training manuals and historical accounts of athletics. The story of the four-minute mile has been a particularly popular subject, spawning books such as The Perfect Mile and 3:59.4: The Quest to Break the Four Minute Mile.

Athletics journalism has spawned a number of dedicated periodicals including Athletics Weekly and Race Walking Record, both of which were first published in England in the early 1940s, and Track & Field News which was first published in the United States in 1948. Runner's World has been in print since 1966 and the Track & Field Magazine of Japan (Rikujyo Kyogi Magazine) is another long-running publication.

Athletics events have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Running commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. In the obverse of the coin, a modern athlete figure appears in the foreground, shown in the starting position, while in the background two ancient runners are carved in a manner that gives the appearance of a coin that is "worn" by time. This scene originally appeared on a black-figure vase of the 6th century BC.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

A typical track and field stadium with an oval running track and a grassy inner field
Competitors mid-race at a boys high school event in the United States
A typical layout of an outdoor track and field stadium
A cross country race taking place at a snowy park in the United States.
A typical road running course on the inner-city roads of Toronto
Map of the six continental federations of the IAAF
Ancient Greek pottery showing the javelin and the discus throw
  1. ^"Athletics". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. December 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  2. ^Athlete – Online Etymology Dictionary
  3. ^Intro – What is Athletics?. IAAF. Retrieved on 2010-05-28.
  4. ^Touny, Ahmed D. 84.85–90 History of Sports in Ancient EgyptArchived 2006-10-29 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2010-05-28.
  5. ^Diffley, Seán (2007-07-14). Tailteann Games' place in history going for a song. The Irish Independent. Retrieved on 2010-05-28.
  6. ^The Ancient Olympic Games: Mythic Worship of Gods and Athletes. e-Legacies. Retrieved on 2010-05-28.
  7. ^Origins of Robert Dover's Games . Olympick Games. Retrieved on 2010-05-28.
  8. ^Alain Arvin-Bérod, Les enfants d’Olympie, Paris, CERF, 1996 (pp. 27–40)
  9. ^Frank Moore Colby; Talcott Williams (1914). The New International Encyclopædia. Dodd, Mead. p. 316. 
  10. ^Oxford Companion to Sports and Games, ed. J.Arlott, O.U.P. (1975)
  11. ^The Modern Olympics: a Struggle for Survival, by David C. Young,Johns Hopkins University Press (1996)
  12. ^Hoshino, Atsushi The Origin of Indoor Track and Field Meets. IAAF. Retrieved on 2011-04-09.
  13. ^European Athletics, Inside Track: Newsletter of European Athletics, Vol. 1/2011 (February 2011); Records could be broken as indoor athletics returns home, p. 4; accessed 6 March 2011
  14. ^The United States' National Championships In Track & Field Athletics: Introduction. Track and Field News. Retrieved on 2009-09-19.
  15. ^ abcPara- Athletics – History, Athletics Canada
  16. ^ a

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