Assignment Ada Speed Runner Multiplayer

This article is about the video game. For the second live-action Resident Evil film, see Resident Evil: Apocalypse. For the animated film, see Resident Evil: Degeneration.

"Biohazard 2" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Biohazard Level 2.

Resident Evil 2

North American PlayStation cover art



  • PS / DC
    Nintendo 64
    Microsoft Windows
Director(s)Hideki Kamiya
Producer(s)Shinji Mikami
Programmer(s)Yasuhiro Anpo
Artist(s)Isao Ohishi
Ryoji Shimogama
Writer(s)Noboru Sugimura
Composer(s)Masami Ueda
Shusaku Uchiyama
Syun Nishigaki
SeriesResident Evil
Platform(s)PlayStation, Microsoft Windows, Nintendo 64, Dreamcast, GameCube

January 21, 1998

  • PlayStation
    • NA: January 21, 1998
    • JP: January 29, 1998
    • PAL: April 29, 1998
    Dual Shock Ver.
    • JP: August 6, 1998
    • NA: November 11, 1998
    Microsoft Windows
    • JP: February 19, 1999
    • NA: February 28, 1999
    • PAL: April 1999
    Nintendo 64
    • NA: October 31, 1999
    • JP: January 28, 2000
    • PAL: February 9, 2000
    • JP: December 22, 1999
    • PAL: April 28, 2000
    • NA: December 6, 2000
    • NA: January 14, 2003
    • JP: January 23, 2003
    • PAL: May 30, 2003
Genre(s)Survival horror

Resident Evil 2, known in Japan as Biohazard 2,[b] is a survival horror video game developed and published by Capcom and released for the PlayStation in 1998. The player controls Leon S Kennedy and Claire Redfield, who must escape Raccoon City after its citizens are transformed into zombies by a biological weapon two months after the events of the original Resident Evil. The gameplay focuses on exploration, puzzles, and combat; the main difference from its predecessor are the branching paths, with each player character having unique storylines and obstacles.

Resident Evil 2 was directed by Hideki Kamiya, produced by Shinji Mikami — director of the first Resident Evil — and developed by a team of 40–50 over 21 months. The initial version of the game, commonly referred to as Resident Evil 1.5, differed drastically and was canceled when it was around 70% complete after Mikami decided it was inadequate. The final design introduced settings and a more cinematic presentation.

Resident Evil 2 received praise for its atmosphere, setting, graphics and audio, and it has appeared on several lists of the best games ever made; however, its controls, voice acting, inventory system and puzzles garnered some criticism. It is the most successful Resident Evil game for a single platform, selling over one million copies on PlayStation. It was ported to Windows, Nintendo 64, Dreamcast and GameCube, and a modified 2.5D version was released for the handheld. The story of Resident Evil 2 was retold and built upon in several later games, and has been adapted into a variety of licensed works. It was followed by Resident Evil 3: Nemesis in 1999. Capcom are currently developing a high-definition remake of the game.


As a survival horror game, Resident Evil 2 features the same basic gameplay mechanics as its predecessor, Resident Evil. The player explores a fictional city while solving puzzles and fighting monsters.[2] The game's two protagonists may be equipped with firearms, but limited ammunition adds a tactical element to weapon use.[2][3] On the status screen, the player can check the condition of the protagonists, use medicine to heal their wounds, and assign weapons.[4][5] The characters' current health can also be determined by their posture and movement speed. For example, a character will hold their stomach in pain if wounded, and will limp slowly if on the verge of death.[2] The protagonists may carry a limited number of items, and must store others in boxes placed throughout the game world, where they may later be retrieved.[2][6] Each protagonist is joined by a support partner during the course of the story. These characters accompany the player in certain scenes, and occasionally become playable.[1][7] Certain rooms contain typewriters that the player may use to save the game. However, each save expends one of a limited number of ink ribbons, which the player must collect in the game world.[8][9] The graphics of Resident Evil 2 are composed of real-time generated – and thus movable – polygonal character and item models, superimposed over pre-rendered backgrounds that are viewed from fixed camera angles.[2][10] The game uses tank controls, meaning that pressing up moves the character in the direction they face, down reverses them, and left and right rotates them, regardless of the perspective of the camera.[11]

The main addition over the preceding game is the "Zapping System",[12] by which each of the two playable characters are confronted with different puzzles and storylines in their respective scenarios.[2] After finishing the "A" scenario with one protagonist, a "B" scenario, in which the events are depicted from the other character's perspective, is unlocked.[2][13] The player has the option of starting the "A" scenario with either of the two protagonists, resulting in a total of four different scenarios.[14] Actions taken during the first playthrough affect the second. For example, the availability of certain items may be altered.[2] After each game, the player receives a ranking based on the total time taken to complete the scenario, and on the number of saves and special healing items used.[15] Depending on the player's accomplishments, bonus weapons and costumes may be unlocked as a reward.[13] The original version of Resident Evil 2 contains two stand-alone minigames: "The 4th Survivor" and "The To-fu Survivor". In both of these minigames, the player must reach the goal while fighting every enemy along the way with only the default item loadout.[16] All later versions (except the Nintendo 64 version) add a third minigame, "Extreme Battle", which consists of four playable characters and three stages.[16][17]


On September 29, 1998, two months after the events of the first Resident Evil,[18] most citizens of the Midwestern American mountain community Raccoon City have been transformed into zombies by the T-virus, a biological weapon secretly developed by the pharmaceutical company Umbrella.[19][20]Leon S. Kennedy, a police officer on his first day of duty, and Claire Redfield, a college student looking for her brother Chris, make their way to the Raccoon Police Department.[19] They discover that most of the policemen have been killed,[21] and that Chris has left town to investigate the Umbrella headquarters in Europe.[22] They split up to look for survivors and flee the city.[23][24] While searching for an escape route, Claire meets a little girl, Sherry, who is on the run from an unknown creature, and Leon encounters Ada Wong, who claims to be looking for her boyfriend John, an Umbrella researcher.[23][25]

Raccoon City police chief Brian Irons had been bribed by Umbrella to hide evidence of the company's experiments in the outskirts of the city. He also concealed their development of the new G-virus, an agent capable of mutating a human into the ultimate bioweapon.[23][26] Leon has multiple encounters with a Tyrant monster air-dropped into the Raccoon Police Department by Umbrella to seek the G-virus. Irons tries to murder Claire but is killed by a G-virus mutant in the police department. Thereupon, Claire and Sherry escape through the sewers and become separated. After splitting up with Leon, Ada comes upon Sherry and picks up a golden pendant the girl loses while running away. Further into the sewers, Ada reluctantly teams up with Leon again, after he insists on his duty to protect her. They encounter a middle-aged woman who fires at Ada, but Leon dives between them and takes a bullet himself. Ada ignores the unconscious Leon and follows the woman, who reveals herself to be Sherry's mother Annette and the wife of William Birkin, the Umbrella scientist who created the G-virus. In an attempt to protect his life's work from special agents sent by the Umbrella headquarters, he injected himself with the virus, which turned him into the malformed creature that is now chasing Sherry.[23] Annette recognizes her daughter's pendant and attempts to take it from Ada. A fight ensues, during which Annette is thrown over a railing.[27] Ada learns that the golden locket contains a sample of the G-virus, and later – taken over by her emotions – returns to Leon, tending to his bullet wound.[19][23]

Meanwhile, Claire is reunited with Sherry and discovers that the mutated Birkin has implanted his daughter with an embryo to produce offspring. Leon, Ada, Claire and Sherry advance through an abandoned factory connected to Umbrella's secret underground research facility. An attack by Birkin leaves Ada heavily wounded, and Leon explores the laboratory to find something to treat her wounds.[23] He is interrupted by a psychotic Annette, who explains to him that Ada's relationship with John was only a means of getting information about Umbrella: Ada is a spy sent to steal the G-virus for an unknown organization.[23][28] Just as Annette is about to shoot Leon, the Tyrant appears, and she is forced to retreat. Ada returns to save Leon and battles the Tyrant – which falls into a pit of molten metal – seemingly at the cost of her own life. She confesses her love to Leon, who leaves behind her motionless body. Meanwhile, Annette tries to escape with another sample of the G-virus but is fatally wounded by her mutated husband. However, before she dies, she tells Claire how to create a vaccine that will stop the mutations caused by the embryo within Sherry. After preparing the cure, Leon and Claire reunite at an emergency escape train and inject Sherry with the vaccine, which saves her life. En route, Leon is assisted in terminating the now-mutated Tyrant by a woman in shadow and escapes with the G-virus in the pendant.[23][29] Birkin – now mutated into a agglomeration of flesh and teeth – follows Leon and Claire, but is destroyed when the trains self-destructs.[23] After escaping from the city with Sherry, Leon intends to take down Umbrella, while Claire continues to search for Chris.[23][30]HUNK, one of the special agents sent by Umbrella, completes his G-virus retrieval mission.[29]



Development of Resident Evil 2 began one month after the completion of its predecessor in early 1996.[31] The first footage of the game was shown at the V Jump Festival '96 in July.[32] This early build, later dubbed "Resident Evil 1.5" by producer Shinji Mikami, differed drastically from the released version in its scenario, presentation and gameplay mechanics.[33][34] Its plot followed the same basic outline as that of Resident Evil 2, and featured a zombie outbreak in Raccoon City two months after the events of the first game. In this version of the story, however, Umbrella had already been closed down as a consequence of their illegal experiments.[35] The development team sought to retain the level of fear from the original game, and thus introduced to the narrative two new characters who lacked experience with terrifying situations: Leon S. Kennedy, largely identical to his persona in the final build, and Elza Walker, a college student and motorcycle racer vacationing in Raccoon City, her hometown.[34][35][36][37] Unlike the final version, the story paths of Leon and Elza did not cross, and each playable character had two support partners instead of just one.[36] Leon received help from fellow police officer Marvin Branagh and a researcher named Linda – an early version of Ada – while Elza was aided by Sherry Birkin and a man named John, who appeared in Resident Evil 2 as gun shop owner Robert Kendo.[36][38]

Real-world examples influenced several character designs by artists Isao Ohishi and Ryoji Shimogama. For example, Ohishi based Leon on his bloodhound, and Annette Birkin was modeled after actress Jodie Foster.[38] The police department in which Resident Evil 1.5 began had a more modern and realistic design, and was smaller than the final building seen in Resident Evil 2.[35][36] There were more encounters with surviving policemen, such as a superior officer of Leon called Roy.[36][38] The number of polygons used for enemy models was far lower than in the released version.[33] This allowed many zombies to appear on the screen, a method of invoking fear in the player that recurred throughout Resident Evil 1.5.[33][34] Furthermore, the game employed dynamic music, and frequently applied alterations to the pre-rendered backgrounds in response to events during the gameplay.[35] The playable characters could be equipped with gear, such as protective clothes that enhanced their defense and enabled them to carry more items.[39][40] The characters' polygonal models were altered by costume changes and by damage received from enemies.[39]

Final version[edit]

The development was carried out by a 40- to 50-person group that would later be part of Capcom Production Studio 4.[33][41] Director Hideki Kamiya led the team, which was composed of newer Capcom employees and over half of the staff from the original Resident Evil.[31][33][34] In the initial stages of development, producer Mikami often had creative disagreements with Kamiya, and tried to influence the team with his own direction. He eventually stepped back to an overseeing role as producer, and only demanded to be shown the current build once a month.[42] Believing the game's assets to be good individually, but not yet satisfactory as a whole, Mikami expected that everything would coalesce in the three months leading up to the projected May 1997 release date.[37][42] Shortly thereafter, however, Resident Evil 1.5 was scrapped at a development stage of 60–80 percent.[31][33][36][43] Mikami later explained that the game would not have reached the desired quality in the aforementioned period, and especially frowned upon the gameplay and locations for being "dull and boring".[31][33][42]

The story of Resident Evil 1.5, with which Mikami planned to end the series, was criticized by supervisor Yoshiki Okamoto, who found it to be too conclusive to allow for future installments. Instead, Okamoto proposed the creation of a fictional universe that would turn Resident Evil into a metaseries – similar to the Gundam and James Bond franchises – in which self-contained stories with common elements could be told.[44] During a period in which the team made no progress rewriting the scenario, Okamoto was introduced to professional screenwriter Noboru Sugimura, who was enthusiastic about the first game's story.[45] Sugimura was initially consulted on a trial basis, but Okamoto was impressed by the ease with which the writer came up with solutions to the problems that plagued the script, and soon asked him to compose the entire scenario for Resident Evil 2.[33][45] One fundamental modification to the story was the reworking of Elza Walker into Claire Redfield, in order to introduce a connection to the plot of the first game.[31] To fulfill Capcom's sales plan of two million copies, director Kamiya tried to attract new customers with a more ostentatious and Hollywood-like story presentation.[46] As Okamoto did not want to simply enforce the new direction, he had Sugimura discuss the plot revisions with Mikami and the development staff.[44] The planners redesigned the game from the ground up to fit the changes, and the programmers and other remaining members of the team were sent to work on Resident Evil Director's Cut, which was shipped with a playable preview disc of the new Resident Evil 2 version in order to promote the sequel and to apologize to the players for its belated release.[33][47]

Only a few assets from Resident Evil 1.5 could be recycled, as the principal locations in the final build were made to look more extravagant and artistic, based on photographs taken of the interiors of Western-style buildings in Japanese cities.[33] These environments were created with a software program called O2, and each background took two to three weeks to render. The maximum number of zombies displayed on the screen at one time was limited to seven, making it possible to use 450 polygons for the comparatively detailed models of Leon and Claire.[31] The protagonists, instead of being given visible wounds, were made to limp slowly upon receiving heavy damage.[33] Apart from the graphics, one of the most important new features was the "Zapping System", which was partly inspired by Back to the Future Part II, a time travel-themed film sequel that offers a different perspective on the story of the original film. The voice-overs by the all-Canadian cast of Resident Evil 2 were recorded before the actual cutscenes were completed, with each of the actors selected from a roster of ten people per role.[48] Thereafter, the full-motion videos (FMVs) were created by filming stop motion animations of action figures, which were then rendered to completed pictures with computer graphics (CG) tools.[49] Ada's movie model could not be finished in time. Thus, she is the only main character not to appear in a pre-rendered cutscene.[48]

Several changes had to be made between the regional releases of Resident Evil 2. The North American version contains more violent "game over" screens, which were removed from the Japanese Biohazard 2. Resident Evil 2 was also made more difficult than its Japanese equivalent to prevent rentals from affecting U.S. sales.[49][31][50]


See also: Discography of the Resident Evil video game series

"Raccoon City"

An 11-second sample of the composition "Raccoon City", demonstrating the game's use of music to create a specific type of atmosphere. In this particular piece, the leitmotif of the soundtrack is played by a trombone.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The music for Resident Evil 2 was composed by Masami Ueda, Shusaku Uchiyama and Syun Nishigaki, with one song (The Underground Laboratory) composed by Naoshi Mizuta.[51][52] The compositions were meant to convey "desperation" as their underlying theme.[31] In his role as lead composer, Ueda provided the motifs, while Uchiyama was responsible for the horror-themed music used for the investigation and movie scenes.[53] The main theme of the score, a versatile three-note leitmotif, appears several times throughout the course of the story, being included in compositions such as "Prologue", "Raccoon City" and "The Third Malformation of G". Various musical styles, ranging from ambient horror music to industrial pieces, are used to represent the different environments of the game. For example, the streets of Raccoon City are emphasized with militaristic percussion-based music, while the police department features ominous piano underscores.[54] Key events of the story are supported with orchestral and cinematic compositions – a move that was inspired by blockbuster films.[53][54]

Two albums containing music from the game were released in January and August 1998, respectively.[55][56] The first, Biohazard 2 Original Soundtrack, is the main release and includes most of the significant compositions.[54] The second, Biohazard 2 Complete Track, largely encompasses less prevalent themes, but offers an orchestral medley and a second CD with sound effects and voice collections, as well as an interview with the sound staff.[57]Biohazard 2 Original Soundtrack received an identical European CD, Resident Evil 2 Original Soundtrack. In the North American album of the same name, the opening theme "The Beginning of Story" is split up into four individual tracks.[54] Five orchestral arrangements of the game's music were included on the Bio Hazard Orchestra Album, a recording of a live concert performed by the New Japan Philharmonic.[58] Disc jockey Piston Nishizawa created electronic remixes for several of the compositions, which were later released as the album Biohazard 2 Remix: Metamorphoses.[59]

Releases and ports[edit]

After its initial release for the PlayStation in January 1998, Resident Evil 2 was reissued and ported to other systems, often gaining new features in the process. The first re-release was the Dual Shock Ver., which incorporated support for the vibration and analog control functions of the PlayStation's DualShock controller. Other additions include a new unlockable minigame called "Extreme Battle", and a "Rookie" mode that enables the player to start the main story with a powerful weapon that features infinite ammunition. The Japanese release of the Dual Shock Ver. contained a "U.S.A. Version" mode based on the difficulty level of Resident Evil 2's Western versions.[60]

The Dual Shock Ver. served as the basis for the majority of ports, such as the Windows 9x-based PC-CD version Resident Evil 2 Platinum. Aside from retaining all previously added features, the PC version can be run in higher resolutions.[61] A "Data Gallery" was added to the main menu, allowing the player to view movies, rough sketches, illustrations and 3D models.[61][62] In February 2006, a Japan-exclusive, Windows XP-compatible PC-DVD re-release was published. Developed by Sourcenext, it included high-quality FMVs encoded at a resolution of 640×480 pixels.[63][64] The Dreamcast version keeps the additions from the original PC release, and incorporates real-time display of the character's condition on the Visual Memory Unit peripheral.[65][66] The Japanese edition of the Dreamcast port was given the subtitle Value Plus and came with a playable demo of Resident Evil – Code: Veronica.[62] An unmodified port of the Dual Shock Ver. was released for the GameCube.[67] The initial PlayStation version was re-released on the Japanese PlayStation Network in 2007, while the service's North American counterpart received the Dual Shock Ver. two years later.[68][69][70]

The Nintendo 64 version of Resident Evil 2 differs most from the other releases is the first of very few games released for the console to have FMVs despite the limited storage space on the cartridge. Over the course of twelve months and with a budget of $1 million,[71]Resident Evil 2 was ported to the console by a team lead by nine full-time and one part-time personnel from Angel Studios.[71] Further help was provided by ten staff from Capcom Production Studio 3 and Factor 5.[72][73] This version offers features that were not included on any other system, such as alternate costumes, the ability to adjust the degree of violence and to change the blood color, a randomizer to place items differently during each playthrough, and a more responsive first-person control scheme.[10][73][74] Additionally, the port features 16 new in-game documents known as the "Ex Files",[10][74] written by Tetsuro Oyama.[51] Hidden throughout the four scenarios, they reveal new information about the series' lore and connect the story of Resident Evil 2 to those of the other installments, including some that hadn't even been released yet at the time.[10][74] The Nintendo 64 version adjusts its display resolution depending on the number of polygonal models currently on screen, and supports the console's Expansion Pak accessory for a maximum resolution of 640×480 during gameplay.[75][76] Other visual enhancements include smoother character animations and sharper, perspective-corrected textures for the 3D models.[75] The music of the Nintendo 64 version uses Dolby Surround, and was converted by Chris Hülsbeck, Rudolf Stember and Thomas Engel.[73] The team reworked the sound set from the ground up to provide each instrument with a higher sample rate than on the PlayStation, thus resulting in higher-quality music.[77] Some features from the other enhanced ports based on the Dual Shock Ver. do not appear in the Nintendo 64 version, such as the "Extreme Battle" minigame.[78]

A port of Resident Evil 2 for the Sega Saturn was developed internally at Capcom for a time, but technical difficulties led to its cancellation in October 1998.[79]Tiger Electronics released a sprite-based 2.5D version for their handheld in late 1998. It included only Leon's story path, and removed several of the original game's core features.[80][81] In February 2013, an unfinished build of Resident Evil 1.5 was leaked onto the Internet.[82]



Promoted with a US$5 million advertising campaign, Resident Evil 2 became the fastest-selling video game in North America. On the weekend following its release, it sold 380,000 copies and grossed US$19 million. It therefore surpassed the revenue of all but one Hollywood movie at that time and broke previous sales records set by the video games Final Fantasy VII and Super Mario 64.[83] With 4.96 million copies sold, the PlayStation version of Resident Evil 2 was a commercial success, and is the franchise's best-selling game on a single platform.[84] Another 810,000 copies of the Dual Shock Ver. were shipped by March 1999.[85]

Initial reviews[edit]

Resident Evil 2 received critical acclaim. Its original PlayStation release holds an average score of 89 out of 100 points at Metacritic.[86] The majority of reviews praised Resident Evil 2 for its atmosphere, setting, graphics and audio, but criticized its controls, voice acting and certain gameplay elements.[b]

IGN's Ricardo Sanchez thought that the game's atmosphere was "dead on", and claimed that "[the] graphics, sound effects, music and level design all work together to create a spooky, horror-filled world".[101] Ryan Mac Donald of GameSpot shared the opinion, and found the game to be "like a product out of Hollywood". He believed that it was "more an interactive, cinematic experience than a video game".[2] Writing for Computer and Video Games, Paul Mallinson considered the game's atmosphere, story and film-like presentation its most outstanding features.[103] Although he found its plot to be "far-fetched", he felt it was "kept down to earth by clever scripting and gritty storytelling".[103]GamePro staff writer Mike Weigand called the narrative "engrossing and dramatic", and the dialogue "well-written" and "spell-binding".[1] Sanchez, GameSpy's Brian Davis and Eurogamer's Martin Taylor praised the "Zapping System" for adding to the story and increasing the replay value.[101][104][105] Mac Donald thought that the idea of actions in the first scenario affecting the second was "cool in concept", but underused in the game.[2]

Resident Evil 2 was also praised for its graphics, which many critics felt were a substantial improvement upon those of the first installment.[1][2][101] Sanchez and Weigand thought that the pre-rendered backgrounds were an impressive leap ahead of those in the original Resident Evil, thanks to their increased detail and interactivity.[1][101] Mac Donald praised the model animations for having reached "true realism", and commended the game's use of body language as a means of seamlessly communicating the condition of the protagonists' health.[2]Allgame's Shawn Sackenheim awarded its graphics the highest possible score, as he found the backgrounds to be "rendered to perfection", the cutscenes "a work of art" and the animation "fluid and eerie".[90] The audio was well received by critics. Weigand cited it as an "excellent accompaniment to the visuals".[1] Sanchez went as far as to say that Resident Evil 2 "may have the best sound design yet for a console game".[101] Sackenheim described the music and sound effects as "spot on perfect", and called the soundtrack "perfectly composed",[90] while Mac Donald likened the game's use of audio to that of classic horror films.[2]

A common point of criticism was the inventory system, which Sanchez called "a pain". He frowned upon the player's need to retrieve objects from item boxes,[101] and Mac Donald criticized the system for being unrealistic, as the boxes are "[magically]" interconnected and all items take the same amount of space when being carried, regardless of their size.[2] Furthermore, Mallinson and Mac Donald disapproved of certain puzzles, which they believed were out of place in a police station setting.[2][103] Sanchez thought that the puzzles were paced better than in the first game, but also found them less interesting and too easy for experienced players.[101] Sackenheim noted the game's brevity in his review, and remarked that the individual scenarios are not different enough to hold the interest of casual players until the end of the game.[90] He found the controls to be "easy to pick up and play", while Sanchez thought that aiming weapons was difficult.[90][101] Certain reviewers panned the voice acting, calling it "cheesy", "terrible" and "barbaric".[c]

Later reviews[edit]

With the exception of the game's critically acclaimed Nintendo 64 port,[106][87] most later releases of Resident Evil 2 have received slightly lower scores than the PlayStation version.[d] Weigand advised players who already owned Resident Evil 2 to rent the Dual Shock Ver. for the "Extreme Battle" minigame, and recommended that newcomers buy the updated edition instead of the original release.[98] The Windows port was praised for its additional content, but criticized for not allowing the player to save at will, and for lacking updated backgrounds to fit the higher in-game resolution.[e] The Nintendo 64 version was widely commended for the technical achievement of fitting a two-disc game on a single 512-Mbit (64MB) cartridge. However, Taylor criticized the game for retaining scenes from the PlayStation version that were used to conceal loading times – a technical disadvantage of optical discs that cartridges do not share.[f] A GamePro writer under the pseudonym "The Freshman" was impressed with the enhanced graphics of the Nintendo 64 port, but was disappointed by its heavily compressed CG FMVs.[107] GameSpot's Joe Fielder found the compression to be forgivable given the cartridge format, and noted that the new exclusive features made up for the lack of the "Extreme Battle" mode.[78] IGN reviewer Matt Casamassina applauded the implementation of Dolby Surround support, and called the Nintendo 64 release the "best version of the game".[10]

The clearer sound effects of the Dreamcast port were received well by Game Revolution's Shawn Sparks, who also remarked that the character models look slightly sharper.[108] However, Steve Key of Computer And Video Games disliked the Dreamcast release's low-resolution backgrounds, which he thought made the characters stand out too much from the environments, and thus lessened the game's atmosphere.[109] GameSpot staff writer James Mielke did not believe that the Dreamcast port was "an essential purchase", but still called it a "great game" and, thanks to its low retail price, an attractive offer.[65] The GameCube release was heavily criticized for its high price and dated graphics.[g] However, "Four-Eyed Dragon" of GamePro noted that it offered the best in-game visuals of any version of the game.[110] Davis and's Mark MacDonald were disappointed by the port's lack of features that were included in the Nintendo 64 release.[104][111]Peer Schneider of IGN found the 2.5D version for the to be frustrating and only "partially faithful" to the original release of Resident Evil 2. Although he felt that its graphics and sound effects managed to recreate the original game's atmosphere to a certain extent, he thought that its controls were too "sluggish" to allow for an enjoyable experience.[81]


Resident Evil 2 has been held in high regard in the years following its initial release, and was named the fourth best game on the PlayStation by Famitsu.[112]Electronic Gaming Monthly, IGN, Game Informer and Official UK PlayStation Magazine included it in their lists of the 100 best games of all time; it came in 62nd, 58th, 34th and sixth place, respectively.[a] Readers of Retro Gamer voted Resident Evil 2 the 97th top retro game, with the staff noting that it was "considered by many to be the best in the long-running series".[113]GameTrailers ranked it fourth on a list of the games that most needed remakes.[114]


The story of Resident Evil 2 was the basis for several licensed works and later games. Ted Adams and Kris Oprisko loosely adapted it into the comics "Raccoon City – R.I.P." and "A New Chapter of Evil", which were released in the first and second issues of Resident Evil: The Official Comic Book Magazine in March and June 1998.[115][116] The 60-issue CantonesemanhuaShēnghuà Wēijī 2 (lit. "Biological Crisis 2") was published weekly from February 1998 to April 1999.[117] A romantic comedy retelling of the game's story, centered on Leon, Claire and Ada, was released as the Taiwanese two-issue comic Èlíng Gǔbǎo II (lit. "Demon Castle II").[118][119]Resident Evil: City of the Dead, a 1999 book written by author S. D. Perry, is a more direct adaptation of the narrative, and is the third release in her series of Resident Evil novelizations, published by Pocket Books in 1999.[120]

The mobile gameResident Evil: Uprising contains a condensed version of the Resident Evil 2 story, adapted by Megan Swaine.[121][122]Resident Evil: The Darkside Chronicles, an on-rails shooter released for the Wii in 2009, includes a scenario named "Memories of a Lost City", which reimagines the original Resident Evil 2 plot while retaining key scenes from the game's four scenarios.[123] In 2008, Resident Evil 5 producer Jun Takeuchi, who had previously worked on the series as weapons designer and graphics animator, alluded to the possibility of a full-fledged remake of Resident Evil 2.[124][125][126] Such a project had already been considered for the GameCube in 2002, but Mikami abandoned the idea as he did not want to delay the in-development Resident Evil 4.[127]

The story arcs introduced in Resident Evil 2 continue in drama albums and later game releases. Kyoko Sagiyama, Junichi Miyashita, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Noboru Sugimura, Hirohisa Soda and Kishiko Miyagi – screenwriters employed by Capcom's former scenario subsidiary Flagship – created two radio dramas, Chiisana Tōbōsha Sherry (lit. "The Little Runaway Sherry") and Ikiteita Onna Spy Ada ("The Female Spy Ada Lives"). The dramas were broadcast on Radio Osaka in early 1999, and later released by publisher Suleputer as two separate CDs, Biohazard 2 Drama Album.[128][129][130][131]Chiisana Tōbōsha Sherry begins shortly after the events of the game. Sherry is separated from Claire while fleeing from Umbrella soldiers sent to kill all witnesses of the viral outbreak. Raccoon City is burned down by the U.S. Government and Umbrella in an attempt to cover up the disaster. Sherry seeks refuge in the neighboring town of Stone Ville, and later escapes to Canada with the help of a girl named Meg, who vows to help her reunite with Claire.[128]

Ikiteita Onna Spy Ada is set a few days after Resident Evil 2, and deals with Ada's mission to retrieve Sherry's pendant with the G-virus sample, which is said to be in the possession of Hunk in the backstory of the drama album.[130]

A screenshot showing protagonist Leon in battle with zombies at a police department. The character and item models are the only moving elements of the graphics. The backgrounds are pre-rendered still images, which allows for a higher level of graphical detail.[1]
In Resident Evil 1.5, players could control a female protagonist called Elza Walker. The zombies in this early version were less detailed, and the interior of the police station had a more modern design.
Producer Shinji Mikami backed down from his hands-on role in development after creative disagreements with the director.
A port of Resident Evil 2 to the Dreamcast added support for the console's Visual Memory Unit, enabling the peripheral to display the current condition of the player character.

Command line options are a common way to tell applications what to do/how to act on startup. With FlightGear they are used for many things, from simple ones like selecting an aircraft up to complex stuff like network traffic and weather parameters.

The easiest way to handle those options for FlightGear is using a tool with a graphical user interface like the FlightGear Qt launcher. This way one don't have to bother about them at all.

However, there are users who don't want or are not able to run a GUI and therefore are interested in this. Those who need them or just want to learn more about FlightGear, but have no idea what we are talking about, may read the wiki page on the general usage of the command line.

A good place to store the personal options is a file called fgfsrc. This file is read by FlightGear on each startup.

The following lists show the options for FlightGear including a short description and sorted by categories. Please have in mind that keeping those lists up to date on the wiki is not an easy task. Also there are different versions of FlightGear out there which don't share exactly the same options. Therefore you better also check your versions ones with . If this command fails, you may add the option as well, see below.

It is sad but true, not even this command is, at least in Git, up to date all the time. At the time of writing at least one option which is supported is not shown with . So if you have serious issues with an option, the source code is, as always, also the best source for info. In the file src/Main/options.cxx all the options are listed with their hard coded default setting and type.

The file $FG_ROOT/options.xml is used to generate the output for . That's the reason why has to be added to this, if it is not set as environmental variable or as option in fgfsrc.


General Options

--help, -h Show the most relevant command line options --verbose, -v Show all command line options when combined with --help or -h --fg-root=path Specify the root data path --fg-scenery=path[:path...] Specify the base scenery path; Defaults to $FG_ROOT/Scenery (--language=code Select the language for this session *Not* supported in 1.9.1 and Git atm!) --launcher Enable Qt launcher --disable-fullscreen Disable full-screen game mode --enable-fullscreen Enable full-screen game mode --disable-splash-screen Disable splash screen --enable-splash-screen Enable splash screen --disable-mouse-pointer Disable extra mouse pointer --enable-mouse-pointer Enable extra mouse pointer (i.e. for full screen Voodoo based cards) --disable-random-objects Exclude random scenery objects (buildings, etc.) --enable-random-objects Include random scenery objects (buildings, etc.) --disable-ai-models Disable the AI subsystem. (This also disables showing the models of other multiplayer aircraft) --enable-ai-models Enable the AI subsystem. --disable-ai-traffic Disable the autogenerated traffic subsystem. --enable-ai-traffic Enable the autogenerated traffic subsystem. --disable-freeze Start in a running state --enable-freeze Start in a frozen state --disable-fuel-freeze Fuel is consumed normally --enable-fuel-freeze Fuel tank quantity forced to remain constant --disable-clock-freeze Clock advances normally --enable-clock-freeze Do not advance clock --enable-auto-coordination Enable auto coordination - rudder and ailerons will be controlled together --disable-auto-coordination Disable auto coordination (default) --browser-app=path Specify path to your web browser --prop:name=value Set property to --config=path Load additional properties from path --units-feet Use feet for distances --units-meters Use meters for distances --ai-sc


--disable-panel Disable instrument panel --enable-panel Enable instrument panel --disable-sound Disable sound effects --enable-sound Enable sound effects --disable-hud Disable Heads Up Display (HUD) --enable-hud Enable Heads Up Display (HUD) --disable-anti-alias-hud Disable anti-aliased HUD --enable-anti-alias-hud Enable anti-aliased HUD --disable-hud-3d Disable 3D HUD --enable-hud-3d Enable 3D HUD --ai-scenario=scenario Add and enable a new scenario. Multiple options are allowed. Scenarios are in /$FG_ROOT/AI/.


--aircraft=name Select an aircraft profile as defined by a top level -set.xml --aircraft-dir=path Specify the exact directory to use for the aircraft (normally not required, but may be useful). Interpreted relatively to the current directory. Causes the <path-cache> from autosave_X_Y.xml, as well as --fg-aircraft options and the FG_AIRCRAFT environment variable to be bypassed. --show-aircraft Print a list of the currently available aircraft types

Flight Model

--fdm=name Select the core flight dynamics model Can be one of jsb, larcsim, yasim, magic, balloon, ada, external, or null --aero=name Select aircraft aerodynamics model to load --model-hz=n Run the FDM this rate (iterations per second) --speed=n Run the FDM 'n' times faster than real time --notrim Do NOT attempt to trim the model (only with fdm=jsbsim) --on-ground Start at ground level (default) --in-air Start in air (implied when using --altitude) --wind=DIR@SPEED Specify wind coming from DIR (degrees) at SPEED (knots) --turbulence=0.0 to 1.0 Specify turbulence from 0.0 (calm) to 1.0 (severe) --ceiling=FT_ASL[:THICKNESS_FT] Create an overcast ceiling, optionally with a specific thickness (defaults to 2000 ft).

Initial Position and Orientation

--airport=ID Specify starting position relative to an airport --runway=rwy_no Specify starting runway (must also specify an airport) --vor=ID Specify starting position relative to a VOR --ndb=ID Specify starting position relative to an NDB --fix=ID Specify starting position relative to a fix --airport=ID Specify airport (e.g. KOAK) --parkpos=NAME Specify a gate at the airport (e.g. 747d11) --offset-distance=nm Specify distance to reference point (statute miles) --offset-azimuth=degrees Specify heading to reference point --lon=degrees Starting longitude (west = -) --lat=degrees Starting latitude (south = -) --altitude=value Starting altitude (in feet unless --units-meters specified) --heading=degrees Specify heading (yaw) angle (Psi) --roll=degrees Specify roll angle (Phi) --pitch=degrees Specify pitch angle (Theta) --uBody=units_per_sec Specify velocity along the body X axis (in feet unless --units-meters specified) --vBody=units_per_sec Specify velocity along the body Y axis (in feet unless --units-meters specified) --wBody=units_per_sec Specify velocity along the body Z axis (in feet unless --units-meters specified) --vc=knots Specify initial airspeed --mach=num Specify initial mach number --glideslope=degrees Specify flight path angle (can be positive) --roc=fpm Specify initial climb rate (can be negative)

Rendering Options

--bpp=depth Specify the bits per pixel --fog-disable Disable fog/haze --fog-fastest Enable fastest fog/haze --fog-nicest Enable nicest fog/haze --disable-horizon-effect Disable celestial body growth illusion near the horizon --enable-horizon-effect Enable celestial body growth illusion near the horizon --disable-enhanced-lighting Disable enhanced runway lighting --enable-enhanced-lighting Enable enhanced runway lighting --season=winter Enable snow covered scenery --disable-distance-attenuation Disable runway light distance attenuation --enable-distance-attenuation Enable runway light distance attenuation --disable-specular-highlight Disable specular reflections on textured objects --enable-specular-highlight Enable specular reflections on textured objects --enable-clouds Enable 2D (flat) cloud layers --disable-clouds Disable 2D (flat) cloud layers --enable-clouds3d Enable 3D (volumetric) cloud layers --disable-clouds3d Disable 3D (volumetric) cloud layers --fov=degrees Specify field of view angle --disable-fullscreen Disable fullscreen mode --enable-fullscreen Enable fullscreen mode --shading-flat Enable flat shading --shading-smooth Enable smooth shading --disable-wireframe Disable wireframe drawing mode --enable-wireframe Enable wireframe drawing mode --geometry=WxH Specify window geometry (640x480, etc) --view-offset=value Specify the default forward view direction as an offset from straight ahead. Allowable values are LEFT, RIGHT, CENTER, or a specific number in degrees --visibility=meters Specify initial visibility --visibility-miles=miles Specify initial visibility in miles --texture-filtering=number Specify anisotropic filtering of terrain textures. Valid values is 1, 2, 4, 8, 16. Default is 1.

Hud Options

--hud-tris Hud displays number of triangles rendered --hud-culled Hud displays percentage of triangles culled

Time Options

--timeofday={dawn,noon,dusk,midnight} Specify a time of day --time-offset=[+-]hh:mm:ss Add this time offset --time-match-real Synchronize time with current time at chosen airport --time-match-local Synchronize time with system time of computer --start-date-sys=yyyy:mm:dd:hh:mm:ss Specify a starting date/time with respect to system time --start-date-gmt=yyyy:mm:dd:hh:mm:ss Specify a starting date/time with respect to Greenwich Mean Time --start-date-lat=yyyy:mm:dd:hh:mm:ss Specify a starting date/time with respect to Local Aircraft Time

Network Options

--httpd=port Enable http server on the specified port --telnet=port Enable telnet server on the specified port --jpg-httpd=port Enable screen shot http server on the specified port

MultiPlayer Options

--callsign assign a unique name to a player --multiplay={in|out},hz,address,port Specify multipilot communication settings multiple instances can be used

Route/Way Point Options

--wp=ID[@alt] Specify a waypoint for the GC autopilot; multiple instances can be used --flight-plan=file Read all waypoints from a file

IO Options

--generic=params Open connection using a predefined communication interface and a preselected communication protocol --garmin=params Open connection using the Garmin GPS protocol --joyclient=params Open connection to an Agwagon joystick --jsclient=params Open connection to a remote joystick --native-ctrls=params Open connection using the FG Native Controls protocol --native-fdm=params Open connection using the FG Native FDM protocol --native=params Open connection using the FG Native protocol --nmea=params Open connection using the NMEA protocol --opengc=params Open connection using the OpenGC protocol --props=params Open connection using the interactive property manager (LEGACY/DEAD DO NOT USE same as --telnet) --pve=params Open connection using the PVE protocol --ray=params Open connection using the Ray Woodworth motion chair protocol --rul=params Open connection using the RUL protocol --atc610x Enable atc610x interface

Under Windows, you must use a special escape sequence if you need to specify a COM port higher than 9.

Example: --generic=\\.\COM10,out,1,/tmp/data.xml,myproto

This is per the Microsoft KB article here:

Avionics Options

--nav1=[radial:]frequency Set the NAV1 radio frequency, optionally preceded by a radial. --nav2=[radial:]frequency Set the NAV2 radio frequency, optionally preceded by a radial. --adf=[rotation:]frequency Set the ADF radio frequency, optionally preceded by a card rotation. --dme={nav1|nav2|frequency} Slave the ADF to one of the NAV radios, or set its internal frequency.

Environment Options

--disable-real-weather-fetch Disable METAR based real weather fetching --enable-real-weather-fetch Enable METAR based real weather fetching (this requires an open internet connection) --disable-horizon-effect Disable celestial body growth illusion near the horizon --enable-horizon-effect Enable celestial body growth illusion near the horizon --enable-clouds Enable 2D (flat) cloud layers --disable-clouds Disable 2D (flat) cloud layers --enable-clouds3d Enable 3D (volumetric) cloud layers --disable-clouds3d Disable 3D (volumetric) cloud layers --visibility=meters Specify initial visibility --visibility-miles=miles Specify initial visibility in miles --wind=DIR@SPEED Specify wind coming from DIR (degrees) at SPEED (knots) --turbulence=0.0 to 1.0 Specify turbulence from 0.0 (calm) to 1.0 (severe) --ceiling=FT_ASL[:THICKNESS_FT] Create an overcast ceiling, optionally with a specific thickness (defaults to 2000 ft). --random-wind --metar="metar string" Starts with a certain METAR string. Only works if live weather is disabled.

Situation Options

--failure={pitot|static|system|vacuum} Fail the pitot, static, vacuum, or electrical system (repeat the option for multiple system failures).

Debugging Options

--log-level={bulk|debug|info|warn|alert} Set the logging level for this session. 0=verbose, 5=alerts only --pid=/pathto/some/ Write current PID into file. --trace-read=property Trace the reads for a property; multiple instances can be used --trace-write=property Trace the writes for a property; multiple instances can be used

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