Essays About Teratogens

1. Ornoy A. The impact of intrauterine exposure versus postnatal environment in neurodevelopmental toxicity: long-term neurobehavioral studies in children at risk for developmental disorders. Toxicol Lett. 2003;140–141:171–181.[PubMed]

2. Ornoy A. The effects of alcohol and illicit drugs on the human embryo and fetus. Isr. J. Psychiatry Relat. Sci. 2002;39:120–132.[PubMed]

3. Jones KL, Smith DW. Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy. Lancet. 1973;2:999.[PubMed]

4. Lemoine P, Harousseau H, Borteyru JP, Menuet JC. Children of alcoholic parents-observed anomalies: discussion of 127 cases. Ther. Drug Monit. 2003;25:132–136.[PubMed]

5. Randall CL. Alcohol and pregnancy: highlights from three decades of research. J. Stud. Alcohol. 2001;62:554–561.[PubMed]

6. Luczak SE, Glatt SJ, Wall TL. Meta-analyses of ALDH2 and ADH1B with alcohol dependence in Asians. Psychol. Bull. 2006;132:607–621.[PubMed]

7. Konishi T, Calvillo M, Leng AS, Feng J, Lee T, Lee H, Smith JL, Sial SH, Berman N, French S, Eysselein V, Lin KM, Wan YJ. The ADH3*2 and CYP2E1 c2 alleles increase the risk of alcoholism in Mexican American men. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 2003;74:183–189.[PubMed]

8. Kang TS, Woo SW, Park HJ, Lee Y, Roh J. Comparison of genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, ADH2, and ALDH2 genes involved in alcohol metabolism in Koreans and four other ethnic groups. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther. 2009;34:225–230.[PubMed]

9. Tanaka F, Shiratori Y, Yokosuka O, Imazeki F, Tsukada Y, Omata M. High incidence of ADH2*1/ALDH2*1 genes among Japanese alcohol dependents and patients with alcoholic liver disease. Hepatology. 1996;23:234–239.[PubMed]

10. Russo D, Purohit V, Foudin L, Salin M. Workshop on Alcohol Use and Health Disparities 2002: a call to arms. Alcohol. 2004;32:37–43.[PubMed]

11. Streissguth AP, Dehaene P. Fetal alcohol syndrome in twins of alcoholic mothers: concordance of diagnosis and IQ. Am. J. Med. Genet. 1993;47:857–861.[PubMed]

12. Lombard Z, Tiffin N, Hofmann O, Bajic VB, Hide W, Ramsay M. Computational selection and prioritization of candidate genes for fetal alcohol syndrome. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:389.[PMC free article][PubMed]

13. Viljoen DL, Carr LG, Foroud TM, Brooke L, Ramsay M, Li TK. Alcohol dehydrogenase-2*2 allele is associated with decreased prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome in the mixed-ancestry population of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 2001;25:1719–1722.[PubMed]

14. McCarver DG, Thomasson HR, Martier SS, Sokol RJ, Li T. Alcohol dehydrogenase-2*3 allele protects against alcohol-related birth defects among African Americans. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1997;283:1095–1101.[PubMed]

15. Delpisheh A, Topping J, Reyad M, Tang A, Brabin BJ. Prenatal alcohol exposure, CYP17 gene polymorphisms and fetal growth restriction. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 2008;138:49–53.[PubMed]

16. Ouko LA, Shantikumar K, Knezovich J, Haycock P, Schnugh DJ, Ramsay M. Effect of alcohol consumption on CpG methylation in the differentially methylated regions of H19 and IG-DMR in male gametes: implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 2009;33:1615–1627.[PubMed]

17. Yates WR, Cadoret RJ, Troughton EP, Stewart M, Giunta TS. Effect of fetal alcohol exposure on adult symptoms of nicotine, alcohol, and drug dependence. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 1998;22:914–920.[PubMed]

18. Alati R, Clavarino A, Najman JM, O’Callaghan M, Bor W, Mamun AA, Williams GM. The developmental origin of adolescent alcohol use: findings from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy and its outcomes. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;98:136–143.[PubMed]

19. Baer JS, Sampson PD, Barr HM, Connor PD, Streissguth AP. A 21-year longitudinal analysis of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on young adult drinking. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2003;60:377–385.[PubMed]

20. Kesmodel U, Wisborg K, Olsen SF, Henriksen TB, Secher NJ. Moderate alcohol intake in pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Alcohol Alcohol. 2002;37:87–92.[PubMed]

21. Martinez-Frias ML, Bermejo E, Rodriguez-Pinilla E, Frias JL. Risk for congenital anomalies associated with different sporadic and daily doses of alcohol consumption during pregnancy: a case-control study. Birth Defects Res. A Clin. Mol. Teratol. 2004;70:194–200.[PubMed]

22. Polygenis D, Wharton S, Malmberg C, Sherman N, Kennedy D, Koren G, Einarson TR. Moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the incidence of fetal malformations: a meta-analysis. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 1998;20:61–67.[PubMed]

23. Strandberg-Larsen K, Nielsen NR, Gronbaek M, Andersen PK, Olsen J, Andersen AM. Binge drinking in pregnancy and risk of fetal death. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111:602–609.[PubMed]

24. Aliyu MH, Wilson RE, Zoorob R, Chakrabarty S, Alio AP, Kirby RS, Salihu HM. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of early stillbirth among singletons. Alcohol. 2008;42:369–374.[PubMed]

25. Jones KL, Smith DW, Ulleland CN, Streissguth A. Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers. Obstetrical Gynecol. Survey. 1974;29:63.

26. Ornoy A. Embryonic oxidative stress as a mechanism of teratogenesis with special emphasis on diabetic embryopathy. Reprod. Toxicol. 2007;24:31–41.[PubMed]

27. Covington CY, Nordstrom-Klee B, Ager J, Sokol R, Delaney-Black V. Birth to age 7 growth of children prenatally exposed to drugs: a prospective cohort study. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2002;24:489–496.[PubMed]

28. Banerjee TD, Middleton F, Faraone SV. Environmental risk factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Acta. Paediatrica. 2007;96:1269–1274.[PubMed]

29. Jones KL. From recognition to responsibility: Josef Warkany, David Smith, and the fetal alcohol syndrome in the 21st century. Birth Defects Res. Pt. A. 2003;67:13–20.[PubMed]

30. Stratton KR, Howe CJ, Battaglia FC. Fetal alcohol syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment; Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Vol. 156. National Academy Press; Washington, DC, USA: 1996. pp. 63–81.

31. Astley SJ, Clarren SK. Diagnosing the full spectrum of fetal alcohol-exposed individuals: introducing the 4-digit diagnostic code. Alcohol Alcohol. 2000;35:400–410.[PubMed]

32. Hoyme HE, May PA, Kalberg WO, Kodituwakku P, Gossage JP, Trujillo PM, Buckley DG, Miller JH, Aragon AS, Khaole N, Viljoen DL, Jones KL, Robinson LK. A practical clinical approach to diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: clarification of the 1996 institute of medicine criteria. Pediatrics. 2005;115:39–47.[PMC free article][PubMed]

33. Meyer KA, Werler MM, Hayes C, Mitchell AA. Low maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and oral clefts in offspring: the Slone Birth Defects Study. Birth Defects Res. A. 2003;67:509–514.[PubMed]

34. Romitti PA, Sun L, Honein MA, Reefhuis J, Correa A, Rasmussen SA. Maternal periconceptional alcohol consumption and risk of orofacial clefts. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2007;166:775–785.[PubMed]

35. DeRoo LA, Wilcox AJ, Drevon CA, Lie RT. First-trimester maternal alcohol consumption and the risk of infant oral clefts in Norway: a population-based case-control study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2008;168:638–646.[PMC free article][PubMed]

36. Chevrier C, Perret C, Bahuau M, Nelva A, Herman C, Francannet C, Robert-Gnansia E, Cordier S. Interaction between the ADH1C polymorphism and maternal alcohol intake in the risk of nonsyndromic oral clefts: an evaluation of the contribution of child and maternal genotypes. Birth Defects Res. A. 2005;73:114–122.[PubMed]

37. Williams LJ, Correa A, Rasmussen S. Maternal lifestyle factors and risk for ventricular septal defects. Birth Defects Res. A. 2004;70:59–64.[PubMed]

38. Tikkanen J, Heinonen OP. Risk factors for atrial septal defect. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 1992;8:509–515.[PubMed]

39. Grewal J, Carmichael SL, Ma C, Lammer EJ, Shaw GM. Maternal periconceptional smoking and alcohol consumption and risk for select congenital anomalies. Birth Defects Res. A. 2008;82:519–526.[PMC free article][PubMed]

40. Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Yang W, Lammer EJ. Maternal periconceptional alcohol consumption and risk for conotruncal heart defects. Birth Defects Res. A. 2003;67:875–878.[PubMed]

41. Autti-Ramo I, Fagerlund A, Ervalahti N, Loimu L, Korkman M, Hoyme HE. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Finland: clinical delineation of 77 older children and adolescents. Am. J. Med. Genet A. 2006;140:137–143.[PubMed]

42. Krasemann T, Klingebiel S. Influence of chronic intrauterine exposure to alcohol on structurally normal hearts. Cardiol. Young. 2007;17:185–188.[PubMed]

43. Chen CP. Syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with neural tube defects (VI) Taiwan J. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;47:267–275.[PubMed]

44. Shaw GM, Velie EM, Morland KB. Parental recreational drug use and risk for neural tube defects. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1996;144:1155–1160.[PubMed]

45. Slickers JE, Olshan AF, Siega-Riz AM, Honein MA, Aylsworth AS. Maternal body mass index and lifestyle exposures and the risk of bilateral renal agenesis or hypoplasia: the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2008;168:1259–1267.[PubMed]

46. Linneberg A, Petersen J, Gronbaek M, Benn CS. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring. Clin. Exp. Allergy. 2004;34:1678–1683.[PubMed]

47. O’Callaghan FV, O’Callaghan M, Najman JM, Williams GM, Bor W. Prenatal alcohol exposure and attention, learning and intellectual ability at 14 years: a prospective longitudinal study. Early Hum. Dev. 2007;83:115–123.[PubMed]

48. Cottencin O, Nandrino JL, Karila L, Mezerette C, Danel T. A case-comparison study of executive functions in alcohol-dependent adults with maternal history of alcoholism. Eur. Psychiatry. 2009;24:195–200.[PubMed]

49. Gladstone J, Nulman I, Koren G. Reproductive risks of binge drinking during pregnancy. Reprod. Toxicol. 1996;10:3–13.[PubMed]

50. Boyd TA, Ernhart CB, Greene TH, Sokol RJ, Martier S. Prenatal alcohol exposure and sustained attention in the preschool years. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 1991;13:49–55.[PubMed]

51. Streissguth AP, Barr HM, Sampson PD. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure: effects on child IQ and learning problems at age 7 1/2 years. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 1990;14:662–669.[PubMed]

52. Adnams CM, Sorour P, Kalberg WO, Kodituwakku P, Perold MD, Kotze A, September S, Castle B, Gossage J, May PA. Language and literacy outcomes from a pilot intervention study for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in South Africa. Alcohol. 2007;41:403–414.[PMC free article][PubMed]

53. Kalberg WO, Provost B, Tollison SJ, Tabachnick BG, Robinson LK, Eugene Hoyme H, Trujillo PM, Buckley D, Aragon AS, May PA. Comparison of motor delays in young children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those with prenatal alcohol exposure and with no prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 2006;30:2037–2045.[PubMed]

54. Goodlett CR, Eilers AT. Alcohol-induced Purkinje cell loss with a single binge exposure in neonatal rats: a stereological study of temporal windows of vulnerability. Alcoholism: Clin. Exp. Res. 1997;21:738–744.[PubMed]

55. Ramadoss J, Lunde ER, Chen WJ, West JR, Cudd TA. Temporal vulnerability of fetal cerebellar Purkinje cells to chronic binge alcohol exposure: ovine model. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 2007;31:1738–1745.[PubMed]

56. Astley SJ, Olson HC, Kerns K, Brooks A, Aylward EH, Coggins TE, Davies J, Dorn S, Gendler B, Jirikowic T, Kraegel P, Maravilla K, Richards T. Neuropyschological and behavioral outcomes from a comprehensive magnetic resonance study of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Can. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2009;16:e178–201.[PMC free article][PubMed]

57. Handmaker NS, Rayburn WF, Meng C, Bell JB, Rayburn BB, Rappaport VJ. Impact of alcohol exposure after pregnancy recognition on ultrasonographic fetal growth measures. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 2006;30:892–898.[PubMed]

58. Barr HM, Bookstein FL, O’Malley KD, Connor PD, Huggins JE, Streissguth AP. Binge drinking during pregnancy as a predictor of psychiatric disorders on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV in young adult offspring. Am. J. Psychiatry. 2006;163:1061–1065.[PubMed]

59. Cartwright MM, Smith SM. Increased cell death and reduced neural crest cell numbers in ethanol-exposed embryos: partial basis for the fetal alcohol syndrome phenotype. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 1995;19:378–386.[PubMed]

60. Heaton MB, Paiva M, Mayer J, Miller R. Ethanol-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species in developing rat cerebellum. Neurosci. Lett. 2002;334:83–86.[PubMed]

61. Kay HH, Tsoi S, Grindle K, Magness RR. Markers of oxidative stress in placental villi exposed to ethanol. J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. 2006;13:118–121.[PubMed]

62. Signore C, Aros S, Morrow JD, Troendle J, Conley MR, Flanigan EY, Cassorla F, Mills JL. Markers of oxidative stress and systemic vasoconstriction in pregnant women drinking > or =48 g of alcohol per day. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 2008;32:1893–1898.[PMC free article][PubMed]

63. Randall CL, Anton RF. Aspirin reduces alcohol-induced prenatal mortality and malformations in mice. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 1984;8:513–515.[PubMed]

64. Ylikorkala O, Halmesmaki E, Viinikka L. Urinary prostacyclin and thromboxane metabolites in drinking pregnant women and in their infants: relations to the fetal alcohol effects. Obstet. Gynecol. 1988;71:61–66.[PubMed]

65. Randall CL. Alcohol as a teratogen: a decade of research in review. Alcohol Alcohol Suppl. 1987;1:125–132.[PubMed]

66. Haley DW, Handmaker NS, Lowe J. Infant stress reactivity and prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 2006;30:2055–2064.[PubMed]

67. Vangipuram SD, Grever WE, Parker GC, Lyman WD. Ethanol increases fetal human neurosphere size and alters adhesion molecule gene expression. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 2008;32:339–347.[PubMed]


Teratogen Essay

507 Words3 Pages

Teratogens are all around pregnant women. Only look at the normal house hold toothpaste that states on the bottle, to seek medical attention if swallowed. Almost everyone has toothpaste in their home and uses it everyday but with all the chemicals, it is considered a teratogen if ingested. Teratogens affect embryo's development and counselors can help prevent exposure to teratogens. Almost any man made substance could be considered a teratogen to some extent. However, the key question is at what level is a substance to be considered a teratogens because, to officially be classified as a teratogen it has to alter the embryo from an unnatural growth or lack of. From the Life Span text, it lists the most researched teratogens as…show more content…

The nervous system is likely to be subject to teratogens at week 3 to week 20. However, the nervous system could be subject to teratogens until birth. Each stage of development with the embryo constantly transforming the embryo is subject to teratogens largely at initial development of each major system. Teratogens could affect the heart development at three and half weeks to six and a half. Without a developed heart, an embryo might not have a long life. As this learner's chosen major as counseling psychology, There are approaches that would be taken into account to persuade clients not to expose themselves to teratogens. Everything from educating the client about teratogens to referring them to a medical doctor to ensure they had a normal and healthy embryo. Listening and explaining the consequences to the client would help the client understand the consequence of their actions, to exposure to teratogens. As a counselor, there would not be much one could do to stop exposure of teratogens besides persuasion unless the client implied or said they were purposely going to try to harm the embryo, in which it would be a moral obligation and possibly a legal one to take all actions possible to stop the exposure to the embryo. Teratogens can harm an embryo. Most will not kill an embryo. However, any large quantity of teratogens like nicotine will

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